Kings of Bhaktapur

Introduction of Bhuvana Malla

Bhuvana Malla was a Malla king who ruled Bhaktapur from 1505 A.D. to 1519 A.D. for 14 years. He was the son of King Raya Malla and was also known as Suvarna Malla. In his reign, the integration of Banepa into Bhaktapur was finalized. The details of his reign are minimal, but some Inscriptions and Thyasaphus mention that he ruled for 15 years after the death of Raya Malla.

As Bhuvana Malla was still a minor when he became king, he was assisted by his uncle Rana Malla in the administration of the kingdom. After Rana Malla died, a power vacuum arose in Banepa, which was integrated into Bhaktapur.

Bhuvana Malla’s reign is not well recorded, unlike the later kings of Bhaktapur. He did not leave a lasting legacy on the kingdom, and therefore, he is not given much importance in the history of Nepal. His death was followed by the controversial reign of Jita Malla and Prana Malla, who were either his sons or son and Brother.

Reign of Bhuvana Malla

Chronology of Bhuvana Malla

Bhuvana Malla was born during the reign of His Father, Raya Malla anywhere between 1490 A.D. to 1505 A.D. However, some chronicles don’t mention the name of Bhuvana Malla at all. They mention someone named Suvarna Malla and that he ruled Bhaktapur for a total of 15 years after the death of Raya Malla.

However, the Chronicles listed by Jagajyotir Malla as well as Bhupatindra Malla (Later Kings of Bhaktapur) don’t seem to have a trace of Suvarna Malla. They mention Bhuvan Malla as the rightful heir to the throne of Bhaktapur. Therefore, the rightfulness of Bhuvana Malla as the heir to the throne of Bhaktapur should be accepted.

As Raya Malla had to rule over Divided Nepal, his other brothers had been ruling Kathmandu and Banepa respectively. After his death, Bhuvana Malla was still a minor and he required help to run the Kingdom’s Administration. Therefore, the Third Eldest Son of Yaksha Malla named Rana Malla arrived in Bhaktapur. Rana Malla had been allotted the Kingdom of Banepa by his Father.

After Rana Malla also started to assist Bhuvana Malla, he died some years later down the road. Interestingly, he hadn’t left an heir to actually rule Banepa. Therefore, a Power vacuum had arisen in Banepa which needed to be settled. It is said that Banepa was integrated into Bhaktapur because of that.

In Consequence, Only Two Kingdoms remained in Nepal during the period. The Kingdom of Kathmandu and Patan was ruled by Ratna Malla whereas the Kingdom of Bhaktapur was ruled by Bhuvana Malla.

Anyways, Bhuvana Malla has several documents marking his reign. In one of the documents, he is said to have died in 1519 A.D. His death was followed by the controversial and confusing reign of Jita Malla and Prana Malla as the Kings of Bhaktapur. Some argue that Jita Malla and Prana Malla were actually his sons whereas some establish an Uncle-Nephew relationship between Jita Malla and Prana Malla.


The Details of the Life and Reign of Bhuvana Malla aren’t well recorded like the Later Kings. Unlike his Late successors such as Bhupatindra Malla, Jitamitra Malla, etc. he failed to leave a lasting legacy on the Kingdom of Bhaktapur. Therefore, he isn’t given much importance in regard to the History of Nepal as a well. Also, The Reign of Bhuvana Malla was marked by Stability but not prosperity which is interesting.


  • Regmi, Dilli Raman. “Medieval Nepal” Four Volumes. Firma K, 1965-66
  • Shaha, R. (2001). Ancient and Medieval Nepal. India: Manohar.
  • Slusser, Mary S Nepal Mandala, “A Cultural Study of the Kathmandu Valley Two Volumes” Princeton University Press, 1982 C.E.
  • Levi Sylvain: Le Nepal, Etuda Historique d’um royaume Izindou, 3 volumes, Paris, 1905
  • Subedi, Raja Ram, 2061, “Nepalko Tathya Itihas,” Sajha Prakashan
  • Sangraula, Narayan Prasad, 2068, “Prachin tatha Madhyakalin Nepal,” Kankai Publishers and Distributors
  • Petech, Luciano. Medieval History of Nepal Volume II. Rome, 1985


Pokhrel, A. (2023). King Bhuvana Malla – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.