Kings of Bhaktapur

Introduction to Jagat Prakash Malla

Jagat Prakash Malla was the Malla King of Bhaktapur from 1643 A.D. to 1672 A.D. He was less than five years old when he became the King. He became King at a young age. He required the assistance of ministers and courtiers for 13 years.

Chandrasekhar Singh was one of his chief ministers. He played the Vital Role as the Backbone of the Early Reign of Jagat Prakash Malla.

He had battles and wars against the Kingdom of Kathmandu led by Pratap Malla. Jagat Prakash Malla was also a poet and writer. He had earned the title “King of Poets” and “Teacher and Master of Music.” He died at the age of 34, and his son succeeded him as King.

Reign of Jagat Prakash Malla

Chronology of Jagat Prakash Malla

Jagat Prakash Malla was born to the Royal Malla Family as the son of King Naresa or Narendra Malla in 1639 A.D. He was the Grandson of King Jagajyotir Malla. His Father shortly died in 1643 A.D. meaning that Jagat Prakash Malla became the King of Bhaktapur before the age of Five Years Old.

Therefore, he required the help of other Ministers and Courtiers for nearly 13 years.

In his Childhood, two Influential Ministers have been repeatedly mentioned in the documents. The Name of one of the ministers is Visva Bharo whereas the name of Another Minister is Dhanadasimha Bhaju.

Although the Identity of these Ministers is unknown and even controversial to a certain extent. These Ministers exercised considerable influence in the Court of the King and were even mentioned beside the King.

As Jagat Prakash turned older, he uses another name for a Minister known as Chandrasekhar Singh. He has been mentioned repeatedly in the Documents of the King. He was made the Chief Minister of Bhaktapur and the De-Facto Administrator of Bhaktapur for a long period of his reign.

In one of his documents, Jagat Prakash Malla had called Chandrasekhar Singh the person who is above all others and whose equal cannot be found. He has also said that Chandrasekhar Singh was dear to him as his own life.

Therefore, Chandrasekhar Singh was one of the most important parts of the Kingdom of Bhaktapur during his reign. An Ancient Thyasaphu mentions that Chandrasekhar Singh help the King get the Wife named Annapurnalaxmi.

Jagat Prakash Malla’s reign was continuously filled with Battles and Wars against The Kingdom of Kathmandu led by Pratap Malla. In 1658 A.D. he and Patan fought against Pratap Malla but couldn’t manage to defeat him. Patan was reigned by Srinivas Malla at the time. All these Kings were energetic and actively involved in defeating each other.

Pratap Malla had defeated Jagat Prakash Malla and his father many times. It is said that he was rescued from such losses by Srinivas Malla of Patan whom he has praised many times. As Jagat Prakash was also a poet, he often exaggerated the contribution of someone.

Jagat Prakash Malla ultimately died at the young age of 34 years in 1672 A.D. after which his son Jitamitra Malla was crowned the King of Bhaktapur.

Contributions of Jagat Prakash Malla


Jagat Prakash Malla had interests for poetry and music. He earned the title “King of Poets” and “Teacher and Master of Music”. However, Historians have posited that the Title was owned but self conferred. These Titles were also claimed by King Pratap Malla of Kathmandu which shows their similar nature.

At a young age, Jagat Prakash Malla composed a collection of poems titled Nändrangagitasangraha. He continued to preach his Literary Abilities with works such as Padyasamucchaya and Gitapañcaka.

Art and Architecture

Jagat Prakash Malla was a lover of the art of dancing. He built an image of Nṛtyanatha. He also constructed a nearby structure to enshrine Nārāyaṇa. He reconstructed the Royal Palace of Bhaktapur and constucted the Temple of Bhavani-Sankara at the Western Part of the Palace. He also improved upon the Taleju temple.


In conclusion, Jagat Prakash Malla was a prominent Malla King of Bhaktapur. Although his Foreign Relations with the Kathmandu Valley struggled because of Continuous Wars, he nonetheless managed to maintain stability and prosperity in Bhaktapur. He was further assisted by Chandra Sekhar Singh during his reign.


  • Regmi, Dilli Raman. “Medieval Nepal” Four Volumes. Firma K, 1965-66
  • Shaha, R. (2001). Ancient and Medieval Nepal. India: Manohar.
  • Slusser, Mary S Nepal Mandala, “A Cultural Study of the Kathmandu Valley Two Volumes” Princeton University Press, 1982 C.E.
  • Levi Sylvain: Le Nepal, Etuda Historique d’um royaume Izindou, 3 volumes, Paris, 1905
  • Subedi, Raja Ram, 2061, “Nepalko Tathya Itihas,” Sajha Prakashan
  • Sangraula, Narayan Prasad, 2068, “Prachin tatha Madhyakalin Nepal,” Kankai Publishers and Distributors
  • Petech, Luciano. Medieval History of Nepal Volume II. Rome, 1985


Pokhrel, A. (2023). King Jagat Prakash Malla – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.