Kings of Bhaktapur

Introduction to Kings of Bhaktapur

The Kingdom of Bhaktapur was one of the strongest Kingdoms of Nepal and spanned from the period of 1482 A.D. to 1769 A.D. It was the original Kingdom of the Malla Dynasty of Nepal. This Kingdom was the most stable Kingdom of whole Nepal with only 12 kings in the Period of 287 years of History.

During this period, the Bhaktapur Durbar Square was reconstructed, and Nyatpola Temple, 55-Window Palace, and other architecture were built, It also saw religious, economic, and literary reforms during this Period.

List of the Kings of Bhaktapur

No.Rulers of the Malla DynastyRuling Years in C.E. or A.D.
 1Raya Malla+ Sons of Yaksha Malla1482-1495 C.E.
 2Raya Malla1496-1505 C.E.
 3Bhuvana Malla1505-1518 C.E.
 4Prana Malla + Jita Malla1518-1545 C.E.
 5Visva Malla1545-1559 C.E.
 6Trailokya Malla1559-1614 C.E.
 7Jagajyotir Malla1614-1637 C.E.
 8Naresa Malla1637-1643 C.E.
 9Jagatprakasa Malla1643-1672 C.E.
 10Jitamitra Malla1672-1696 C.E.
 11Bhupatindra Malla1696-1722 C.E.
 12Ranajita Malla1722-1769 C.E.
Chronology of The Kingdom of Bhaktapur (C.E. means Current Era and Equivalent to A.D.)

Raya Malla (1482-1505 A.D.)

Raya Malla was the eldest son of Yaksha Malla and ruled over the Kingdom of Bhaktapur, Changu, Sankhu, Nakadesa, Thimi, and Bode for 23 years from 1482 to 1505 A.D.

Although he was the rightful successor of his father’s vast empire, Yaksha Malla divided the kingdom among his three eldest sons, and Raya Malla was given the kingdom of Bhaktapur but had to co-rule with his younger brothers until he became the sole ruler in 1495.

He attempted to unite Nepal through negotiations with his brothers, but his efforts failed due to his clever brother Ratna Malla. Raya Malla ruled honestly and religiously. He was succeeded by his minor son, Bhuvan Malla, under the guidance of Rana Malla.

Bhuvana Malla (1505-1519 A.D.)

Bhuvana Malla was a Malla king who ruled the Kingdom of Bhaktapur for 14 years from 1505 A.D. to 1519 A.D. Banepa was integrated back into Bhaktapur. He became king when he was still a minor and was assisted by his uncle Rana Malla in the kingdom’s administration. After his death, a controversial reign of Jita Malla and Prana Malla happened.

Jita and Prana Malla (1518-1545 A.D.)

Jita Malla and Prana Malla were joint kings of the Kingdom of Bhaktapur from 1518 A.D. to 1545 A.D. Some have argued that they were brothers, while others suggest that Jita was Prana Malla’s uncle. Jita Malla has never been mentioned alone as king.

Patan separated from Kathmandu under the feudal overlord Visnusimha, beginning the age of three kingdoms. Visva Malla succeeded them and ruled Bhaktapur from 1545 A.D. to 1559 A.D.

Visva Malla (1545-1559 A.D.)

Visva Malla was the King of the Kingdom of Bhaktapur from 1545 to 1559 AD. He also contributed to the Religion and architecture of Bhaktapur. He repaired and improved the design of the Dattatreya Temple. He also promoted Religious Tolerance.

He initiated the famous Bhairava Ceremony. His reign was short but prosperous. His wife, Ganga Rani acted as Regent after his death.

Trailokya Malla (1559-1614 A.D.)

Trailokya Malla was the longest-reigning king of Nepal’s Malla dynasty. He ruled the Kingdom of Bhaktapur for 55 years, from 1559 to 1614 A.D. He also ended a local rebellion. Ganga Rani acted as the Regent Queen and became a Co-Ruler.

Trailokya Malla managed to establish himself as the sole ruling Authority by surpassing his Brother Tribhuvana Malla. He died in 1614 A.D.

Jagajyotir Malla (1614-1637 A.D.)

Jagajyotir Malla was a Malla King of the Kingdom of Bhaktapur who ruled from 1614 to 1637 A.D. He was involved in the Artistic, Literary and Architectural Development and the Bisket Jatra.

Jagajyotir Malla co-authored a treatise on music called Sangitabhaskara and compiled a collection of Sanskrit songs called Gutapancasika. He also wrote a commentary on Vatsayana’s Kamasutra.

Naresa Malla (1637-1644 A.D.)

Naresa Malla was the King of the Kingdom of Bhaktapur from 1637 A.D. to 1644 A.D. He lost a battle to King Pratap Malla of Kathmandu and minted coins in his name during his short reign. He was succeeded by his son Jagat Prakash Malla.

An Inscription has been discovered where he has been titled “King of Kings.” He was succeded by his son Jagat Prakash Malla, an ambitious King.

Jagat Prakash Malla (1643-1672 A.D.)

Jagat Prakash Malla was the Malla King of Bhaktapur from 1643 A.D. to 1672 A.D. He became King at a young age and required the assistance of ministers and courtiers for 13 years. Chandrasekhar Singh was a minister that empowered his reign.

He faced battles against the Kingdom of Kathmandu, led by Pratap Malla. Jagat Prakash Malla was also a poet and writer, earning the title “King of Poets” and “Teacher and Master of Music.” He died at 34, and his son succeeded him as King.

Jitamitra Malla (1672-1696 A.D.)

Jitamitra Malla was the king of the Kingdom of Bhaktapur from 1672 to 1696 A.D. He was an Artistic, Architectural, and other Form of Development in Bhaktapur. He wrote literary Works and poems, and paid for annexes in the Royal Palace.

He also improved relations with Neighboring Kingdoms. He also built water channels and canals around Bhaktapur and Thimi. He also built rules and regulations for using Water Channels.

Bhupatindra Malla (1696-1722 A.D.)

Bhupatindra Malla was a King of the Kingdom of Bhaktapur who ruled from 1696 to 1722 A.D.

He paid for the construction of several temples and public buildings, such as Nyatapola Temple and the Golden Gate of Bhaktapur Durbar Square. Bhupatindra Malla was a passionate follower of arts and literature.

He was succeeded by his son, Ranajit Malla, and ruled for a few years before the Shah dynasty conquered the Kathmandu Valley and established their own rule. Bhupatindra Malla signed a treaty with the East India Company in 1715 A.D. to regulate trade and commerce between Nepal and the East India Company.

Ranajita Malla (1722-1769 A.D.)

Ranajita Malla was the last king of the Kingdom of Bhaktapur from 1722 A.D. to 1769 A.D. He was a peace-loving king and the most senior. He had good relations with Jagajjaya Malla, the King of Kathmandu, until Jayaprakash Malla became king.

He hated Jayaprakash Malla and increased his relationship with Gorkha, which Narbhupal Shah ruled. Prithvi Narayan Shah, the son of Narbhupal Shah, became his ritual brother after becoming fond of him. Prithvi Narayan Shah used his weak temperament to defeat the Kathmandu Valley.

Prithvi Narayan Shah defeated the Kingdom of Bhaktapur in 1769 A.D. Ranajita Malla was allowed to live a retired life in Benaras.


Raya Malla ruled the Kingdom of Bhaktapur after the sons of Yaksha Malla began to rule Nepal separately. He was succeeded by Bhuvana Malla, who was assisted by his uncle Rana Malla. After Bhuvana Malla, Prana Malla and Jita Malla ruled together until 1534, after which Prana Malla ruled alone for 11 years. Prana Malla’s son Visva Malla became king in 1545, and he was followed by Trailokya Malla, who was guided and controlled by Ganga Rani.

It must also be noted that being the Original House of the Malla Dynasty, Bhaktapur had much Power and Authority over Other Kingdoms. Therefore, Ranajita Malla had the ability to save Kathmandu by uniting with other Malla Kingdoms. However, he didn’t of which Ranajita Malla is still blamed to this day.


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Pokhrel, A. (2023). Kings of Bhaktapur – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.