Kings of Bhaktapur

Introduction to Trailokya Malla

Trailokya Malla was the longest reigning king of the Malla dynasty in Nepal, ruling Bhaktapur for 55 years from 1559 to 1614. He ended a local rebellion by feudal lords and brought stability to Bhaktapur.

His mother, Ganga Rani, acted as regent queen for both Trailokya and his younger brother, Tribhuvana. She eventually became co-ruler with the title of Sri Sri Jaya Gangaranidevi Thakurini.

Trailokya Malla’s reign was eventful because of more than 50 years of Imperialism. He built small temples and conducted many religious deeds. He is also credited with starting the Kumari tradition, but this is a legend lacking evidence.

Regency of Ganga Rani

Trailokya Malla was born in the Royal Malla Family of the Home Kingdom of Bhaktapur as the Eldest Son of Visva Malla and Ganga Rani. After the death or retirement of Visva Malla, Trailokya Malla climbed the throne of the Kingdom of Bhaktapur. However, The Mother of Trailokya Malla was still alive and her name was Ganga Rani. She also had another son named Tribhuvana Malla. He was the younger brother of Trailokya Malla.

Ganga Rani wanted both her sons to become the King of Nepal instead of just one. Therefore, she made both the Kings of Bhaktapur with the elder brother Trailokya Malla being the Leading King. As both Tribhuvana and Trailokya were just Children, Ganga Rani decided to act as the Regent Queen on their behalf.

Ganga Rani herself became the Co-Ruler or a Ruling Queen of Nepal making her one of the rarest women in Nepali History. A Thyasaphu writes that Ganga Rani was such a great mother that she would control both her sons easily and they would obey her.

During the Early Reign of King Trailokya Malla, Ganga Rani had absolute Power over the Future of Bhaktapur. Ganga Rani is said to have been an efficient Administrator that was known for her pure and religious deeds as well.

Later down the road, Ganga Rani proclaimed herself as the Co-Ruler of Bhaktapur and was provided the Title of Sri Sri Jaya Gangaranidevi Thakurini. Her name was mentioned before her two sons meaning that she was the true authority behind the Throne of Bhaktapur.

Chronology of Trailokya Malla

Reign of Trailokya Malla

Before the 17th Century or End of the 1500’s King Trailokya Malla had established himself as the Sole Ruling Authority in Bhaktapur. The Future Kings of Bhaktapur also acknowledge him as the True Authority and King of Bhaktapur and omit the name of Tribhuvan Malla in all cases.

Therefore, some believe that it was just a matter of courtesy to mention him as a King and that he lacked True Power which is certainly true.

Dilli Raman Regmi had put forward a brilliant argument regarding Tribhuvana Malla. One of the documents puts the term anuja before Tribhuvana Malla and the word anuja generally means Younger Brother according to him.

The Reign of Traulokya Malla was quite eventful in consideration of the History of Nepal. During his reign, the Sons of Feudal Overlord named Purandarasimha Ruled Patan. Then, Sadasiva Malla, the Extravagant also ruled Kathmandu for a certain time until being replaced by his brother Sivasimha Malla.

King Trailokya Malla actually provided shelter and security for Sadasiva Malla after being removed. He eventually died in Bhaktapur itself. Also, Sivasimha, the Brother managed to become the King of Kathmandu, defeat Patan and bring Patan under the rule of Kathmandu once again.

Meanwhile, Bhaktapur also faced some minor internal conflicts during his reign. One of the Feudal Lords of Banepa started to oppose the Kingdom of Bhaktapur and tried to gain independence from Bhaktapur.

However, Trailokya Malla quickly settled down the conflict by defeating him. It goes to show that he was an influential King at the time.

During his long reign of 55 Years, Trailokya Malla also managed to construct several small temples in Thimi and the Locality of Bhaktapur Durbar Square. He also conducted many religious deeds.

Trailokya Malla eventually died in 1614 A.D. being the longest-reigning King in Malla History reigning for 55 Years and surpassing Yaksha Malla‘s reign by just one Year. Although we cannot guarantee that he actually reigned till 1614 A.D., it has been accepted as such.


In conclusion, Trailokya Malla was the longest-reigning Malla king of Nepal, ruling Bhaktapur for 55 years. Trailokya Malla brought stability to Bhaktapur and defeated a local rebellion. He also constructed several temples and conducted many religious deeds. His legacy is remembered as the great King of Bhaktapur.


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Pokhrel, A. (2023). King Trailokya Malla – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.