Kings of Kathmandu

Introduction to Bhaskara Malla

Bhaskara Malla was the King of Kathmandu from 1700 A.D. to 1722 A.D. Mahendra Simha is contested by a group of Historians as being his Original Name while others posit that Mahendra Simha was another King of Kathmandu.. He ascended to the throne of Nepal at the age of just four years old after the death of Bhupalendra Malla.

The Valley of Kathmandu welcomed his birth with great joy. Italian and Tibetan missionaries arrived in Nepal during his rule. He conducted the Treaty of Peace with Bhaktapur and also became the King of Patan for five years.

Early Years of Bhaskara Malla

Bhaskara Malla was the only son of Bhupalendra Malla, his predecessor, and Bhuvanalaxmi born in 1700 A.D. Bhaskara Malla was raised by his mother, who was also in charge of the government’s operations.

Unfortunately, little is known about her associates who may have supported her during this time. Nonetheless, Jhagal Thakur is mentioned in the chronicles as a well-known person from the time period in question.

Around the same time, Patan had a minor on the throne after the death of Yoganarendra Malla. Only Bhadgaun had an adult king, Bhupatindra Malla, with some administrative experience.

Regent Queen Bhuvanalaksmi maintained in keeping peace with Patan and cordial ties with Bhadgaun in spite of these obstacles.

Bhaskara Malla felt the need to add eminent titles to his name that conveyed his authority and status after he reached adulthood. Along with his love of studying, he claimed to be an expert in many fields of study, including music.

Among the names he adopted for himself were Girindra, which means King of the Mountains, and Nepālesvara, which means the Lord of Nepal. He behaved in a way reminiscent of King Pratap Malla.

Bhaskara Malla or Mahendrasimha

During the reign of Bhaskara Malla, the controversial name Mahendrasimha has also arisen. Several references after 1714 to a king of Kathmandu in this period calling himself Mahendrasimha surfaced.

It is uncertain who this man was and where he came from, but it is most likely that Mahendrasimha is another name for Bhupalendra Malla. The Bhāṣā Banshawali chronicle even states that Mahendrasimha’s earlier name was Bhaskara.

Bhaskara Malla

Contemporary sources referred to the King of Kathmandu as Bhaskara or Mahendrasimha, with Bhaskara Malla being mentioned as late as 1719 A.D.

During this time, there is no mention of Mahendrasimha in the court records that include a wealth of information about the births, initiations, marriages, and other events involving members of the Kathmandu royal family.

Reign of Bhaskar Malla

Bhaskara-Mahendrasimha also served as king of Patan from A.D. 1710-1715. He permitted Muslim musicians, perfumers, and bangle dealers to settle in Kathmandu and even appointed a Muslim as his minister. Tragically, this sparked a popular rebellion that resulted in the deaths of all but five of the Muslim settlers.

In the Kathmandu Valley, two strong monarchs who ruled over nearby kingdoms were Bhupatindra Malla and Bhaskara Malla. They forged a covenant promising to uphold peace between their kingdoms notwithstanding their disagreements.

They agreed not to hold grudges against one another or consider harming one another under any circumstances as part of the treaty.

As per the terms of the agreement, Kathmandu was to remain in Bhaktapur’s company and take the lead in any future negotiations between the two kings.

The treaty also acknowledged that evildoers would attempt to incite strife between the two kingdoms, but that in order to avoid any confrontation, the two sides should cooperate covertly.

The treaty required that the two kingdoms consult with one another before sharing profit and loss . Rupees 36,000 was deposited as a security deposit to ensure the continuation of the Contract.

Father Ippolito Desideri arrived in Nepal under the reign of Bhaskara Malla, stayed for a month, and gave a description of Nepali politics.


Although Bhaskara Malla’s exact date of death is unknown, his successor had already taken power by 1722 A.D. During his reign, the Kathmandu Valley witnessed political Stability.


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Pokhrel, A. (2023). King Parthivendra Malla – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.