Kings of Kathmandu

Introduction to Kings of Kathmandu

The Kingdom of Kathmandu was formed by Ratna Malla, the second eldest son of Yaksha Malla. It was formed because of the Death of Yaksha Malla, the grandson of Jayastithi Malla.

This Kingdom, despite not being the Original Kingdom became the most dominant among the Three Kingdoms of Nepal. Kings such as Sivasimha Malla, Mahendra Malla, and Pratap Malla ruled it by making it superior economically, culturally, and intellectually.

The Original Blood Rulers of Kathmandu fell after the death of Bhaskara Malla. Despite that, Jagajjaya Malla and Jayaprakash Malla protected Kathmandu as if it was their own. 14 Kings of Kathmandu ruled it for 280 Years and formed the basis to make it the Capital City of Nepal.

List of All Kings of Kathmandu

Ratna Malla (1482-1520 A.D.)

Ratna Malla was the first King of the Kingdom of Kathmandu and Patan and ruled them from 1482 A.D. to 1520 A.D. He was the second eldest son of Yaksha Malla and the main cause of the Division of Nepal. He was an energetic and ambitious ruler who used any means possible to achieve his goals.

He killed twelve feudal Thakuri lords who opposed his ascension to the throne. He established relations with the Kingdom of Palpa and conquered Nuwakot. He also built a Small Taleju Temple in Kathmandu and begun issuing Copper Coins.

Surya Malla (1520-1529 A.D.)

Surya Malla was the King of Kathmandu and Patan in Nepal from 1520 to 1529. He succeeded his father, Ratna Malla and grandfather, Yaksha Malla. His reign was short and insignificant.

King Mukund Sen of Palpa attacked Kathmandu in 1525 A.D. and 1526 A.D. He was succeded by Amara Malla who some have said to be Narendra Malla.

Narendra Malla (1529-1560 A.D.)

Amara Malla, also known as Narendra Malla, ruled the Kingdom of Kathmandu for 31 years from 1529 A.D. to 1560 A.D. Nepalese historians haven’t found conclusive evidence regarding whether Amara Malla and Narendra Malla were the same people or two different kings.

The Kingdom of Patan became independent from Kathmandu, and Visnusimha established himself as its ruler. Amara Malla was a religious king and promoted the Dances of Harisiddhi.

Mahendra Malla (1560-1574 A.D.)

Mahendra Malla was the fourth ruler of the Kingdom of Kathmandu and reigned from 1560 A.D. to 1574 A.D. He was the son of King Narendra Malla. He was a reformist King who brought artistic, economic, architectural, and legal reforms to Nepal. He did not engage in war with the Kingdom of Patan.

He also built the Great Taleju Temple and the Royal Palace of Kathmandu. He further introduced New Silver Coins called Mahendramalli. He died in 1574 A.D.

Sadasiva Malla (1574-1578 A.D.)

Sadasiva Malla was the eldest son of King Mahendra Malla and ruled the Kingdom of Kathmandu for four years before being deposed to Bhaktapur. He is proclaimed to have been a Lavish King with Immoral Behavior such as conducting Night Raids. He was replaced by his Half-Brother Sivasimha.

Sivasimha Malla (1578-1617 A.D.)

Sivasimha Malla was the son of Mahendra Malla and ruled the Kingdom of Kathmandu from 1578 to 1617 for 39 years. Sivasimha replaced his brother, Sadasiva Malla.

Sivasimha was an illegitimate son of Mahendra Malla, but he was ambitious and determined to rule Kathmandu. He expanded the city and conquered Patan and installed his son as the governor. He ruled Kathmandu and Patan for decades with stability.

Laxminarasimha Malla (1617-1641 A.D.)

Laxminarasimha Malla was the grandson of Sivasimha Malla and ruled the Kingdom of Kathmandu from 1617 A.D. to 1641 A.D. He inherited only the Kingdom of Kathmandu from his grandfather and accepted the divided Kathmandu as his kingdom when he succeeded to the throne.

Laxminarasimha was also the Father of Pratap Malla and he retired in 1741 A.D. He also conducted a treaty with Siddhinarasimha. Pratap Malla went on to become one of the most famous kings in the history of Nepal.

Pratap Malla (1641-1674 A.D.)

Pratap Malla was a famous King of the Kingdom of Kathmandu from 1641 A.D. to 1674 A.D. He brought dozens of reforms and developments in the Arts, architecture, Law and Economy of Kathmandu. He constructed the Rani Pokhari and other temples.

Pratap Malla had multiple Wives and Mistresses; his most famous wife was Rupamati. He had three sons named Cakravartendra Malla, Mahipatendra Malla, and Nrpendra Malla.

Nrpendra Malla (1674-1680 A.D.)

Nrpendra Malla became the King of the Kingdom of Kathmandu in 1674 after his father’s death. A Controversy happened during his coronation after a succession dispute. He ruled for six years without leaving any male heir.

A Treaty of Friendship was also signed with the ruler of Gorkha. Nrpendra Malla also faced an epidemic of smallpox in the Kathmandu Valley, which took his own sister’s life, and he died in 1680 A.D.

Parthivendra Malla (1680-1687 A.D.)

Parthivendra Malla was the son of Pratap Malla and ruled the Kingdom of Kathmandu for seven years, from 1680 A.D. to 1687 A.D. He was passionate in Poetry and Arts and erected statues of himself and his family.

He also claimed the conquest of Sindhuli and called himself Kaviraja. He developed antagonism with his younger brother. Parthivendra died from consuming poison with rice.

Bhupalendra Malla (1687-1700 A.D.)

Bhupalendra Malla was the King of the Kingdom of Kathmandu from 1687 A.D. to 1700 A.D. He ascended the throne at the age of eight. He was with the support of his mother, Riddhilakshmi. She acted as the regent during his reign.

Lakshminarayan Josi had two prominent ministers assassinate and inscribe his name in a post equivalent to a prime minister. He was a tolerant man with Religious Secularism.

Bhaskara Malla (1700-1722 A.D.)

Bhaskara Malla was the King of the Kingdom of Kathmandu from 1700 A.D. to 1722 A.D. He became king at the age of four after his father’s death, Bhupalendra Malla. Italian and Tibetan Missionaries arrived in Nepal during his reign. He conducted the Treaty of Peace with Bhaktapur. He also became the King of Patan for five years.

Bhaskara Malla was cared for by his mother, who also managed the affairs of the government. He was passionate about learning and called himself proficient in all arts and sciences, including music.

Jagajjaya Malla (1722-1733 A.D.)

Jagajjaya Malla was a king of the Kingdom of Kathmandu who ruled from 1722 to 1733 AD. He was the adopted successor of his relative, Bhaskara-Mahendrasimha, and the son of Kumudini Devi, the daughter of Mahipatendra Malla. A coin was minted with the name of his mother and maternal grandfather.

He granted permission for Capuchin missionaries to work in Kathmandu. He fought frequent battles with King Bhupatindra Malla of Bhadgaun and maintained a peaceful relationship with Patan. He died in 1733 AD and was succeeded by his son, Jaya Prakash Malla.

Jayaprakash Malla (1734-1768 A.D.)

Jayaprakash Malla was the last king of the Kingdom of Kathmandu, who ruled from 1734 to 1768 AD. His character is portrayed to be Selfish, Tyrannic and Courageous at the same time. He faced opposition from different factions of his kingdom, both internally and externally. He was overthrown once and returned back as King. He was the Last King of Kathmandu.


The Kings of Kathmandu ruled fairly and with much stability and economic prosperity until the death of Pratap Malla in 1674 A.D. However, his death meant the perishment of once Great and Powerful Malla Kings and the rise of Prime Ministers and Pramanas who were willing to benefit themselves. The reign of Pratap Malla was the pinnacle of the Kingdom of Kathmandu.


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