Introduction to Surya Malla

Surya Malla was the King of Kantipur and Patan from 1520 A.D. to 1529 A.D. for Nine Years. He succeeded his Father Ratna Malla and his Grand Father Yaksha Malla.

He was the Second King of Divided Nepal to rule Kathmandu and Patam. He also had a son named Amara Malla or Narendra Malla.

Reign of Surya Malla

Surya Malla is the son of King Ratna Malla and grandson of King Yaksha Malla. He is one of the lesser-known Kings of the Kathmandu Valley. He became the King and assumed the throne of Kathmandu in 1523 A.D. and ruled it for a mere 6 Years. He ultimately died in 1529 A.D. Existing Evidence has proven that he was the successor of Ratna Malla.

A Manuscript was discovered that dated back to 1495 A.D. and it confirms that Surya Malla was the son of Ratna Malla. He was married to a Noble Family as stated in the Manuscript. Moreover, Three Other Inscriptions/Manuscripts were discovered that named Surya Malla as the King.

Despite this information, Surya Malla‘s reign is not considered prosperous or significant in Nepalese history. He ruled for a brief period, and his identity remains somewhat of a mystery.

Invasion of Palpa in Nepal

During the reign of Surya Malla, King Mukund Sen of Palpa attacked Nepal twice in 1525 A.D. and 1526 A.D. respectively.

The Sen Kings of Palpa had a relatively stable relationship with the Kathmandu Valley. Therefore, they desired to use that friendly relations to establish their advantage.

At one point, Mukund Sen succeeded in surrounding both Kathmandu and Patan. This event has been Historically verified by Mahesh Raj Panta and Dinesh Raj Panta.

Death of Surya Malla

Chronology of Surya Malla
Chronology by D.R. Regmi

Surya Malla also had a son, Amara Malla, who ruled Nepal from 1529 A.D. to 1538 A.D. According to the diary of the Royal Priest of Bhaktapur, he died in 1529 A.D.. Therefore, his reign lasted from 1520 A.D. to 1529 A.D.

Conclusion

To Conclude, the reign of Surya Malla was short, unremarkable, and plagued by the Invasion of Palpa. These Invasions weren’t seen by Nepal from the times of Jayastithi Malla.

His lineage and few available Inscriptions have certainly given us a glimpse of this period of the Kingdom of Kantipur.

References

  • Regmi, Dilli Raman. “Medieval Nepal” Four Volumes. Firma K, 1965-66
  • Shaha, R. (2001). Ancient and Medieval Nepal. India: Manohar.
  • Slusser, Mary S Nepal Mandala, “A Cultural Study of the Kathmandu Valley Two Volumes” Princeton University Press, 1982 C.E.
  • Levi Sylvain: Le Nepal, Etuda Historique d’um royaume Izindou, 3 volumes, Paris, 1905
  • Subedi, Raja Ram, 2061, “Nepalko Tathya Itihas,” Sajha Prakashan
  • Sangraula, Narayan Prasad, 2068, “Prachin tatha Madhyakalin Nepal,” Kankai Publishers and Distributors
  • Petech, Luciano. Medieval History of Nepal Volume II. Rome, 1985

Citation

Pokhrel, A. (2023). King Surya Malla – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History. https://itihasaa.com/kathmandu/surya-malla-2/