Kuther Tribunal

Introduction to Kuther Tribunal

Kuther was the most powerful administrative tribunal of Ancient Nepal. Its Origin was before the rise of the Lichhavi Dynasty in Nepal. In fact, It was present during the Administration of the Kirat Dynasty.

Other Administrative Tribunals such as Sholla or Sulli, Ligwal, and Mapchowk also existed during the Kirat Dynasty and were passed on to the Lichhavi Dynasty.

Kuther Tribunal is first mentioned in the Inscription of King Basantadeva of the Lichhavi Dynasty of 512 A.D., seven years after the death of King Manadeva. Therefore, it was of an ancient origin.

Officers of The Kuther Tribunal

It was administered by Brittyadhikrit. Brittiya means the one who has been provided a Salary by the government and Adhikrit means Officer. Brittiyadhikrit could be only one individual or there could have been multiple Officers of the Kuther Tribunal.

They had to travel to every village known as Grams and extract tax and payment from all landowners of that period.

The Officers had to repeat the procedure over a regular period of time. However, the percentage of Taxation and the Currency of Taxation isn’t known.

Also, Was the Taxation the yield crop or was it the Land and whether the productivity of the Land is measured are some ambiguities about the Kuther Tribunal.

Despite that, Kuther Tribunal was the major source of Revenue and fund for running the Government of Lichhavi and Kirat Kings. Therefore, it was prioritized over Other Tribunals.

Functions of The Kuther Tribunal

Land Revenue

The Primary Function of The Kuther Tribunal was the collection of Land Revenues from the Citizens of Nepal. It was the major source of Revenue and fund for running the Government of Lichhavi and Kirat Kings.

During the reign of Amshuverma, he started to increase the decentralization of Governance. This allowed the Local Villages themselves to collect the Land Taxation and Revenue.

It meant that the officers of the Tribunal couldn’t enter the village to collect such taxes. For that reason, the villagers had to donate or give some land to The Kuther Tribunal so that the government can have sufficient Revenue.

Lekhyadan (Land Registration)

An Inscription that mentions Kuther Tribunal
Inscription of Pasikhya of King Basantadeva

The Kuther Tribunal was provided the responsibility by the government related to the Registration of Land by Land-Owners.

Land Registration was an integral part of Administration in Ancient Nepal as the ownership of Land and the rules of division of yield between the Government and the Land-Owner were specified in the Registration.

The Citizens had to face difficulties in the Land Registration process of the Central Government. Therefore, Some Local Bodies were provided the right to conduct the Land Registration process themselves.


An Inscription that mentions Kuther Tribunal
Inscription of Kisipidi of King Basantadeva

Trikar refers to Bhag, Bhog, and Kar according to Dhanabajra Bajracharya. Others have stated that Trikar refers to the Taxation of Goods, Animals, and Land.

Anyways, Kuther Tribunal through its Officers collected Trikar from the villages of Nepal during the Kirat and Lichhavi Dynasty.

Development Activities

Finally, Development Activities were also conducted with the help of The Kuther Tribunal. They looked after the proper division of maintenance of Land and provided certain facilities to Landowners as well.

Also, They could have been involved in the construction of Irrigation Tunnels which was instrumental to the Nepalese Economy of the Era.


The Kuther Tribunal has an important legacy in the History of the Lichhavi and Kirat Dynasty as the most important administrative Tribunal of the Era that dealt with all the matters related to Land and Taxation.

Although a few Inscriptions mention it with vague identification of its responsibilities, it is an important part of the Administrative History of Nepal.


Pokhrel, A. (2023). Kuther – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History. https://itihasaa.com/lichhavi-administration/kuther/