Introduction to Mahabaladakshya

Mahabaladakshya was in an important administrative position during the Lichhavi Dynasty as the commander-in-chief of the army. It was one of the Seven Major Organs of the Government he led and had the Chief Duty to Security, Protection and Stability.

The term “Maha” signifies major, while “Adakshya” means the head, and “Bala” refers to the army or soldiers, thus combining to form “Mahabaladakshya.”

As the Military Commander-In-Chief, Mahabaladakshya held highest authority and control over the Military Administration besides the King. It was one of the most powerful Military Administrators of the Government of Lichhavi Dynasty.

The Individual in the Position had to manage and maintain the army and protect it from External and Internal Threats.

The state’s security required a Military Commander-in-Chief. The Commander-in-Chief was the army’s highest-ranking military official, in charge of general strategy, deployment, and organization.

Duties of Mahabaladakshya

Military Administration

The primary duty of Mahabaladakshya was to oversee the military administration of ancient Nepal.

Unfortunately, nothing is known about the particular set of employment methods or how the military was handled at the period.


As Commander-in-Chief of the Nepalese Army, Mahabaladakshya played a critical role in uniting the forces and leading them into combat against opponents throughout Wars.

Nepal suffered many invasions, feudal resistance, and even the proclamation of independence. Therefore, the Commander-in-Chief had to discharge their Function.

Assistance of King

Mahabaladakshya was also responsible for being loyal to the king and assisting him in any way possible.

The monarch could depend on him to give military assistance during uprisings and revolts, or if someone gained greater influence than the king via de facto authority.

For Example, King Shivadeva First asked the help of Mahabaladakshya Kulpradir who acted as Dutak and helped him remove Bhaum Gupta from De-Facto Power.

Honorary Status

Mahabaladakshya was one of the most honoured Titles of Ancient Nepal. In the Inscription of Hadigaon of Amshuverma, this post is said to have been equivalent to Crown Prince. In one of the Inscriptions, both King and Military Commander have been provided equal respect.

He was also included in Paramasan. He also could have assisted the Four Administrative Tribunals (Kuther, Sulli, Ligwal, Mapchowk), Bhattadhikaran, Purvadhikaran as well as Paschimadhikaran. Therefore, this position was an honored position during the Lichhavi Dynasty.

Important Commander-In-Chief’s

Mahabaladakshya has been mentioned in the Inscription of King Shivadeva of Bishnupaduka Fedi of 590 A.D. In this Inscription, he is mentioned as Dutak (Communicator of King’s Decision to the People).

Interestingly, Mahabaladakshya was sometimes provided other duties such as aforementioned. Therefore, they weren’t limited to the Military and played an active role in the Political Landscape of Nepal. These are some of the Commander-in-Chief of the Lichhavi Dynasty:

1. Kulpradir

2. Binduswami

3. Ramswami


The Commander-in-Chief, or Mahabaladakshya, was one of the most honoured Titles and Administrative Positions of Lichhavi Nepal. The Individual had the supreme Military Authority, with collaboration, could protect and attack against Enemy in Conflict or discharge the National Military.


Pokhrel, A. (2023). Mahabaladakshya – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.