Introduction to Paramasan

Paramasan or Antarasan was the Central Assembly of Nepal during the reign of the Lichhavi Dynasty. The King himself headed this Assembly and was one of the rare administrative Bodies. King Narendradeva coined the Term itself. Before and after the reign of King Narendradeva, The National Assembly was known as Antarasan.

Members of Paramasan

As Paramasan was the Central National Assembly during the Lichhavi Era, many important officers were part of this Assembly. Therefore, it must have consisted of multiple members of the assembly. It could have included the Government Officers known as Adhikrits and Bratta. Some of the members that could have been included in Antarasan are as follows:

1. King: The King was the most superior of administrators and therefore, a part of Paramasan. Without the King, the Assembly couldn’t have been started.

2. Sarvadandanayak and Mahapratihar: The Positions of Sarvadandanayak and Mahapratihar were below the hierarchy of the King. These Positions were provided to the same Individual. They were the actual Administrators of the State.

3. Dutak: Dutak were the messengers from the People to the Citizens. As the King needed to communicate the decisions of the Assembly to the People, Dutak was integral to the continuance of Paramasan.

4. Bratta: Bratta was the Government officer hired by the State with a certain Salary. They were Kiths and Relatives of the King or the Verma/ Gupta Family.

5. Mahabaladakshya: Mahabaladakshya was the Commander-in-Chief and dealt with the Military of the State. As Security was among the chief Concerns of the State, he had to be present.

The Assembly was headed by the King. It was regularly called to deal with Legal Matters, Financial Matters, and Administrative Matters of the State. The Meetings of Paramasan/Antarasan were held in Managriha and later in Kailashkut Bhawan.

Functions of Paramasan

Paramasan had large duties and responsibilities that guided the Future of the Nation as a Whole. For Necessities of Plain Administration, various Tribunals were present. Panchalis were present to administer Small Villages (Grams) and Talapati and other Officers governed Tala and Drang. Consequently, the Central Administration was handled by Antarasan. It was the Assembly of the Political Elites of the Lichhavi Dynasty and made the important of all political decisions of Nepal.

Inscription of Antarasan of Amshuverma
Inscription of Amshuverma

The Functions of Paramasan increased after the authority of Kuther, Sulli, Ligwal, Mapchowk, Bhattadhikaran, etc., and other administrative Tribunals slowly decreased.

Varna Vyavastha and Dharma Sankar

After the reign of King Amshuverma, the Administrative Tribunals were given less to minimum Authority and the Central Assembly itself had to handle some of the cases. The Most Important Case handled by Paramasan was the cases related to Varna Vyavastha.

Before Paramasan handled the cases of Varna Vyavastha, Bhattadhikaran actually handled them. They would have been handled by the Local Grams themselves but they were sensitive in nature and required expertise and supervision.

Disputes of Grams

As Paramasan was the central administrative Body, it was responsible for managing disputes between Local Administrative Bodies such as Grams, Tala, and Drang.

One of the Inscriptions mentions that two Local Bodies had a dispute over who would use the Irrigation Tunnels and how they would be used. Therefore, The Central Administrative Body handled them with efficiency and managed to get a grasp on them.

Similarly, other disputes that prevailed between those local bodies would be informed to the King by the Pratihar and King would call for Paramasan.

National Decisions

When Lichhavi Dynasty was ruling over Nepal, many Kingdoms flourished in Tibet as well as India. Therefore, a large and thoughtful assembly was necessary to actually reach an instrumental decision that was best vested in the Interest of Nepal.


In conclusion, Paramasan was the central national assembly during the Lichhavi Dynasty in Nepal. The king headed the assembly and consisted of important officers such as Sarvadandanayak, Mahapratihar, and Mahabaladakshya.

It regularly dealt with legal, financial, and administrative matters of the state, managed disputes between local administrative bodies, and handled sensitive cases related to Varna Vyavastha when required.


Pokhrel, A. (2023). Paramasan – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.