Introduction to King Jayadeva Second

King Jayadeva Second was the son of Shivadeva Second and succeeded him after his death in 713 till 733 A.D. He ruled Nepal for 20 years. He was a remarkable king with many unique qualities, which is why his father honored him with the titles of Sribhattarak, Rajputra, and Bhattarakashree.

Life and Reign of King Jayadeva Second

King Jayadeva Second was the eldest son of King Shivadeva Second and Queen Vatsadevi. He must have had a privileged childhood. He was active in the state administration since the reign of his father Shivdev II where he has been mentioned as Sri Bhttarak.

After the death of his Father, King Shivadeva Second, King Jayadeva Second climbed the throne of the Lichhavi Dynasty. He was married to Princess Rajyamati of the Kosala Dynasty.

In the Inscriptions of King Jayadeva Second, he is referred to as Maharaj Dhiraja Prameshwor, unconquerable by the enemy, running the kingdom that he had grown by his own strength, etc.

He is also mentioned as ‘Parachakrakama’. He tried to make the administration of justice orderly, efficient, and fair. After the reign of King Jayadeva Second, no significant Kings ruled over Nepal.

Character of King Jayadeva Second

King Jayadeva II’s people-oriented activities and scholarly and influential personality have established him as an Important Lichhavi King. He is also referred to as the Historian King and the Poet King of the Lichhavi Dynasty.

Jayadeva Second has five inscriptions that were discovered, and among them, the Pashupati inscription is considered the best composition. The Changunarayan Inscription of King Manadeva First mentions the names of Vrishadeva, Shankaradeva, and Dharmadeva in the three generations of Lichhavi.

However, a detailed list of the Kings of the Licchavi dynasty is found in the Pashupati inscription of Jayadeva Second, which can be considered an invaluable treasure for the readers of the history of ancient Nepal.

Contributions of King Jayadeva Second

Religious Reforms

King Jayadeva Second raised the Pashupatinath Temple’s status as a holy place. He also donated to  Pashupatinath Temple, a silver eight-petaled lotus with a gold saffron-colored center since he was a devoted follower of Pashupatinath.

He urged his mother Vatsadevi to present Pashupati with a brass Nandi and a silver moon lotus. He carried out religious reform-oriented efforts outside of the valley as well. 

His administration of justice was also full of religious sentiments. He had a deep respect for other religions besides Hinduism. He also increased the fame and glory of Buddhism in the Lichhavi society at that time.

Economic Reforms

King Jayadeva Second set up the water distribution system as well as the irrigation system in Nepal. The Licchavi society flourished economically under his rule. India, China, and Tibet were included in the trade.

The valley’s economic life had a positive impact on Nepal’s economic system at the time because of the variety of businesses. He also devoted close attention to the industries of agriculture, mining, and animal husbandry.

Modernization efforts for the agricultural sector’s production were also made. He also placed a lot of emphasis on animal husbandry. During his rule, the advancement of business, animal husbandry, and agriculture was streamlined in Nepal.

Due to the tremendous concessions made to the Bhardars by the kings before King Narendradeva, Ravi, Bhauma, Jishnu, Vishnu Guptas, and Amshuverma 37 became well known throughout North Tibet, China, and South India as a result of their economic reform-loving activity.

Judicial Reforms

According to the Inscription of Naxal Narayanchaur and Dnyaneshwar, the justice system began to take new shapes and the Panchalis urged judges to use the following procedures while making their decisions:

(a) By obliging them to act in accordance with the punishments stipulated according to the written charter questions and job description, they made it clear that 1 part of the 6th part of the money raised by the Panchalis should be kept in the fund of the Panchali and the remaining 5 parts should be filed in the treasury.

(b) The case will be settled within a month after the appeal if the parties are dissatisfied with the Panchali’s decision and file an appeal through the court to the king’s inner court.

Social Contributions

Jayadeva II introduced some reforms to the caste system, language, religion, professions, way of life, and festivals in that society. He fully ended the dual rule in the center and steered the then society toward improvement by granting the local village Grams the authority to resolve all types of disputes.

He established several rules for the community members engaged in various vocations while keeping in mind the customs of the Lichhavi era. On the manners and customs of the various castes, he established several rules.

He helped the previous society become aware of and engaged in the rules of morality by making significant modifications to language and literature.

Inscription of Pashupatinath of 733 A.D.

The Most Famous and Important Contribution of King Jayadeva Second is the Pashupatinath Inscription of 733 A.D.

King Jayadeva Second's Geneology
King Jayadeva Second’s Geneology till King Jayadeva First

In this Pashupati inscription of Jayadeva II, the beginning of the Lichchavi dynasty is mentioned with the words “Manu was born from Brahma’s grandson Surya. From him, Chakravarti became King Ikshvaku. From him, Vikshi was born” etc.

After writing the names up to Dasharatha in this way, it is written that there was a king named Lichchhavi in the same dynasty. In the generation, Supushpa, the twenty-fourth king, mentions the name Jayadeva First.

But the names of the twenty-three kings between Supushpa and Jayadeva First are not included. In the inscription, it is written that there were twelve kings after Jayadeva and First before Vrishadeva, but the names of those kings are not given. However, the names of Manadeva, Mahideva, Basantadeva, and Udayadeva are written.

The names of the kings between Basantadeva and Udayadeva, such as Manudev, Vamanadeva, Ramdev, Ganadeva, Gangadeva, Shivadev, Dhruvadev, Bhimarjundev, etc., are not mentioned in the inscription.

It seems that Jayadeva Second did not respect these kings because they were weak under the control of Gupta Ahirs. Because Shivadeva Second was also working under the authority of Amshuverma, Jayadeva Second did not give him proper respect by not writing his name in the inscription.

After Udayadeva, the names of Narendradeva, Shivadeva Second, and Jayadeva Second are respectively written in the inscription. In this inscription, Jayadeva Second is described as unconquerable by enemies, charitable, considerate of honor, and a good-natured scholar.

Conclusion

King Jayadeva Second is one of the most important Kings of the Lichhavi Dynasty because of his Pashupati Inscription of 733 A.D. which mentions the complete genealogy of the Lichhavi Dynasty despite omitting some Kings.

He also induced Social, Economic, and Judicial Reforms in Nepal which can be considered progressive for the time which is 1300 Years Old.

Miscellaneous

References

  • Regmi, D. R. (1983). Inscriptions of Ancient Nepal. India: Abhinav Publications.
  • Regmi, D. R. (1960). Ancient Nepal. India: Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay.
  • Shaha, R. (2001). Ancient and Medieval Nepal. India: Manohar.
  • Subedi, Raja Ram, 2061 B.S., “Nepalko Tathya Itihas,” Sajha Prakashan
  • Upadhyaya, Shriram Prasad. “Nepalko Prachin ra Madhyakalin Itihas,” Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 2051
  • Vajracharya, Dhanavajra “Lichhavikalka Abhilekh” CNAS, 1973
  • Vajracharya, Dhanavajra, and Kamal P. Malla. “The Gopalraja Vamsavali” Nepal Research Centre Publications, 1985
  • Regmi, Jagadish Chandra. “Lichhavi Itihas” CNAS, 2053 B.S.

Cite

Pokhrel, A. (2023). King Jayadeva Second – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History. https://itihasaa.com/lichhavi-kings/jayadeva-second/