Introduction to King Shivadeva Second

King Shivadeva the Second was the Lichhavi King of Nepal from 685 A.D. to 705 A.D. He was the younger son of Narendradeva. He claimed the Titles of “Parambhattarak Maharaj Dhiraja”, “Lichhavi Kul Ketu” and “Subhihit Varnashramstithi” which indicates that he was a powerful King of the Lichhavi Dynasty.

King Shivadeva Second married Vatsadevi, the granddaughter of Magadh King Aadityasen and Daughter of King of Maukhari, Bhog Varma.

He donated huge lands to Pashupatinath, defeated Tibet killed the King of Tibet during the Nepal-Tibet War of 705 A.D., and constructed streams and wells in Nepal. He was also a great patron of Arts and Literature.

Life of King Shivadeva

King Shivadeva Second was born into the Royal Lineage of the Lichhavi Dynasty of Nepal as a younger son of King Narendradeva. He had two elder brothers, namely Skandadeva and Sauryadeva. Due to the untimely death of Skandadeva and Sauryadeva, he got the opportunity to become the King of Nepal.

Historian Jagadish Chandra Regmi Regmi has stated that there is a gap of 6 years between the reign of King Narendradeva and King Shivadeva Second. As a consequence, no inscriptions have been found in these six years.

It is probable that King Narendradeva died in these Six Years. Also, he has been mentioned as Bhattarak Shree in the last Inscription of King Narendradeva.

Inscription of Pashupatinath on King Shivadeva Second
Inscription of Jayadeva Second on King Shivadeva Second

King Shivadeva Second had extended marital relations with the Great Magadh Dynasty of India. He married the daughter of King Bhog Varma named Vatsadevi. In the Jayadeva Second Inscription of Pashupatinath, this origin has been emphasized highly.

King Bhog Varma had married the daughter of King Aditya Sen of the Magadh Dynasty meaning that he was related to the Magadh Dynasty. After the marriage of King Shivadeva Second and Princess Vatsadevi, Jayadeva Second was born.

Inscriptions of King Shivadeva Second

Only 5 Inscriptions to date have been found about King Shivadeva Second. In the Inscription of Lagantol, he seems to have donated a huge number of Lands to the Aryans of Pashupatinath for Education Purposes.

In the Inscription of Bringheshwor of King Shivadeva, he seems to have set some rules and regulations regarding Varna Vyavastha in Nepal. Varna Vyavastha is an ascribed form of Division of Labor unique to the Indian Sub-Continent. Also, it has been stated that he made sure Local Feudal Lords obeyed him.

In the Inscription found in Gorkha, it is visible that Gorkha was also ruled by the Lichhavi King from the Central Administration.

Contributions of King Shivadeva Second

He ruled for nearly 20 years and has contributed to Nepali History as well as Lichhavi History directly and indirectly.

Varna Vyavastha

He paid particular attention to the Varna Vyavastha. In his records of Bhringareshwar, it is written that he was well-bound by the status of Varnashram (Suvihitvarnashramstiti).

International Recognition

He also married Vatsadevi, the daughter of the great king Bhogvarman of Moukhari Rajkhalak. She was the daughter of King Adityasena of Magadha, which helped him gain international recognition.

Victory in War

Shivadev Second had a rocky relationship with Tibet. In 702 A.D., Nepal attacked Tibet, but it did not succeed. In the Chinese narrative, it is written that the Tibetan king was killed when Nepal attacked Tibet in 704-05 A.D.

By that time, Songstren Gampo, the great king of Tibet, had already died. He defeated the King of Tibet in his second attempt, demonstrating his bravery and might.

Some historians have expressed doubt about whether he defeated Tibet in war and killed its king.

Charity to Pashupatinath

He was more interested in charity and believed that protecting donated property is more virtuous than giving charity. He made special arrangements for the maintenance of the Pashupatinarayan Temple.

King Shivadeva followed the Pashupat Sect of Shaivism Sect of Hinduism.

Conclusion

King Shivadeva Second was an important King of the Lichhavi Dynasty in Nepal because he established Nepal as a prominent Kingdom in the Indian Sub-Continent by defeating Tibet as well as marrying important women into the Lichhavi Dynasty.

However, the identity of Aditya Sena and Bhog Varma isn’t well known. He also made sure that his son, Jayadeva Second also married an important family.

References

  • Regmi, D. R. (1983). Inscriptions of Ancient Nepal. India: Abhinav Publications.
  • Regmi, D. R. (1960). Ancient Nepal. India: Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay.
  • Shaha, R. (2001). Ancient and Medieval Nepal. India: Manohar.
  • Subedi, Raja Ram, 2061 B.S., “Nepalko Tathya Itihas,” Sajha Prakashan
  • Upadhyaya, Shriram Prasad. “Nepalko Prachin ra Madhyakalin Itihas,” Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 2051
  • Vajracharya, Dhanavajra “Lichhavikalka Abhilekh” CNAS, 1973
  • Vajracharya, Dhanavajra, and Kamal P. Malla. “The Gopalraja Vamsavali” Nepal Research Centre Publications, 1985
  • Regmi, Jagadish Chandra. “Lichhavi Itihas” CNAS, 2053 B.S.

Citation

Pokhrel, A. (2023). King Shivadeva Second – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History. https://itihasaa.com/lichhavi-kings/shivadeva-second/