Introduction to King Supushpa

King Supushpa who is the supposed first King of the Lichhavi Dynasty in Nepal, is a historical figure shrouded in controversy for many years.

He has been described as a popular and cherished King. The Gopal Raja Bansawali credits him as the first King to make the Temple of Pashupatinath.

It is a highly revered religious site in Nepal. He was highly loved by his people and, as a result, was loyal and caring to the citizens of Nepal.

Despite being included in introductory History Textbooks as the founder of the Lichhavi Dynasty in Nepal, many historians, including Dhana Bajra Bajracharya and Jagadish Chandra Regmi, have omitted him from the list of actual Lichhavi Kings.

Reign of King Supushpa

King Supushpa (If Real) ruled over Nepal between 300-500 B.C.

The Stone Inscription of King Jayadeva II, dated 733 A.D., mentions him as the 13th generation King after King Lichhavi, who founded the Lichhavi Dynasty. According to the same inscription, he was as handsome as Kamadeva, the Hindu God of Desire.

The Stone Inscription on King Supushpa

Contributions of King Supushpa

Additionally, the Gopal Raja Bansawali, a historical text written during the late 1300s, mentions King Supushpa as a descendant of King Ram of Ayodhya.

According to the text, he established villages and towns in Nepal and built the Temple of Pashupatinath. He also established Varna Vyavastha in Nepal.

It is a practice of ascribed division of labor in the Hindu sub-continent that evolved from The Vedas in the Early Vedic Period.

Gopal Raja Bansawali on King Supushpa

And with the influence of the Surya Lineage, the Lichhavi Lineage under King Lichhavi began in Nepal after defeating the Kirat kings.

His (Lichchavi’s) son became Srinimittakala; Year 50 King Srimkaranta; Year 41. King Srikakavarma; Year 76. King Srisupushpadeva; Year 76. King Shri, Supushpa Dev established a caste system in Nepal land.

He Built the temple of Sri Pashupatinath Temple. He systematically conducted the work of covering (bringing up the roof) of The Pashupatinath Temple. Then he wished to build a beautiful city in the corresponding area.

He absolutely bounded the complete Dignity of Nepal. He treated all his subjects justly and the subjects also obeyed him Justly.

Opinion of Historians

Dhana Bajra Bajracharya

Dhana Bajra Bajracharya in his exclusive writings on the Lichhavi Inscription has stated that his Historical Significance in Nepal cannot be determined. King Jayadeva First has been regarded as Lichhavi King instead.

Dilli Raman Regmi

Dilli Raman Regmi has outrightly denied the existence of King Supushpa in his book Ancient and Medieval Nepal. In fact, he has given some careful consideration and exclaimed that Vrishadeva can be considered the First King of the Lichhavi Dynasty.

Rishikesh Shah

Rishikesh Shah on the other hand has considered the claim of William Kirkpatrick who states that Nevesit was the First Lichhavi King instead of entertaining King Supushpa.


He is credited with establishing villages and towns in Nepal, building the Temple of Pashupatinath, and initiating Varna Vyavastha in Nepal. As Manadeva is the History Writing King, nothing can be said conclusively about the identity of Supushpa.

Historians who have dedicated a longer Period of Research to the Lichhavi Dynasty have considered the identity of King Supushpa with skepticism.


  • Regmi, D. R. (1983). Inscriptions of Ancient Nepal. India: Abhinav Publications.
  • Vajracharya, Dhanavajra “Lichhavikalka Abhilekh” INAS, 1973
  • Vajracharya, Dhanavajra, and Kamal P. Malla. “The Gopalraja Vamsavali” Nepal Research Centre Publications, 1985
  • Regmi, Jagadish Chandra. “Pracin Nepalko Rajnitik Itihas” Royal Nepal Academy, 2035 B.S.
  • Poudel, Nayanath “Bhasa Vansavali Part I” Puratatva Prakashan Mala, 2020 B.S.


Pokhrel, A. (2023). King Supushpa – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.