Introduction to Pramanas

Pramanas were the Ministers that exercised Several Functions over the Kingdom as a whole. Generally, they were Ministers that worked under the Chautara, the Chief Executive Officer.

They held the Powers because of the Trust granted to them by the King. They were the Ministerial Representation of the King and the Government.

The Pramanas like Present-Day Ministers weren’t limited to any activities or Jobs for that Matter. Some of them had to engage in Military Operations including the Battle itself. This title was provided to multiple men at once. Those Government Officers that governed the District as a whole were also provided this designation.

The King crowned the Pramanas. The King held a special ceremony. They were provided a Turban that represented their Primary Functions. The Most Important Source for identifying them was the Thyasaphus. Other Sources have mentioned themselves as Mantri or even Amatya. Even Chautara have mentioned themselves as Pramanas.

Appointment of Pramanas

Anyways, the Choice of who would be appointed as Pramanas rested solely on the King and his will. He could have appointed anyone he wanted to the post of Minister. Generally, the Kings appointed men of High Dignity and Aristocratic Families in the Post.

They generally belonged to the Court Nobility but the common populace also had the opportunity of being elected into such a post. However, they required an indirect relationship with the King. Generally, the Relative of the Concubine or Mistress of a King had the opportunity of being appointed to this Post.

After being appointed into the Post of Pramana, they slowly accumulated Wealth including Gold, Jewelleries, and Land over time. They could also consolidate their Power by impressing the King and getting the post of Chautara.

An interesting observation is that the Caste of Bharo had the most opportunities to get the post of Minister. They belonged to the Kshetriya Class or the Kayastha Caste. Some even belonged to the Brahmin Caste.

Some Pramanas

One of them named Bansidhara had been ordered by King Parthivendra Malla to invade Sindhuli.

Chikuti, despite being a Chautara claimed the Title of Pradhanagrani which means the Leader of Pramanas.

Bhotya Bharo was another Minister that was sent on an expedition.

Navami Bhro, Gopal Bharo, and Haku Bharo were, respectively, Pramanas of the Three Kingdoms of the Kathmandu Valley.

Navasimha Bharo and Gogal Bharo also were Ministers of Kathmandu and Patan.

Raghuvira Bharo, Sukhula Bharo, etc were also other Ministers during the Malla Dynasty.

Functions of Pramanas

Assist Chautara

Chautara was equivalent to the Prime Minister of the Malla Dynasty. As Pramanas were inferior to them in Power and Respect, they had to assist the Chautara in multiple aspects. Generally, Chauatara could give some responsibilities to them and they had to carry them out. They also had to Assist the King upon request.

They could command Deshnayak, Mahamandalik, Dware, Rabutta, etc.

Arrange Festival and Jatra

Festivals, Jatras, and celebrations were at their peak during the Malla Dynasty. Multiple Jatras have been conducted monthly for the People and the King. As the State generally sponsored them, Pramanas had to arrange these festivals and Jatras.

Supervise District Administration

There were multiple small districts in the three Kingdoms of the Kathmandu Valley. The King and Chautara had the responsibility of actually selecting the Governors for these Districts and Deshs. It was the responsibility of the Pramanas to find suitable candidates to rule these Districts and suggest them to the King or the Prime Minister. They also had to regularly visit these Districts and ask the People if they were content with the administration or not.


Pramanas represented the King and Government that served under the Chautara, the Chief Executive Officer during the Malla Dynasty. Their Post resembles that of a Minister. They were appointed from the Nobility of the Court but the Common Population could also be appointed. They assisted the Chautara, arranged festivals and jatras, and supervised district administration.


Pokhrel, A. (2023). Pramanas – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.