Gupta's of Nepal

Introduction to Jayarudra Malla

Jayarudra Malla was the de-facto ruler of Nepal from 1313 A.D. to 1325 A.D. during the reign of Jayanandadeva and the early reign of Jayari Malla. He was also the GrandFather-in-Law of Jayastithi Malla. He is also known to have defeated many local feudal Lords to establish himself as a credible ruler.

Life of Jayarudra Malla

Jayarudra Malla was born in 1295 A.D. and had risen as the Leader of the Tripura Royal Family by 1213 A.D. after the death of his father Jayatunga Malla. However, his mother was alive and remained alive long after his death.

During his Teens, he was married and they had a daughter named Nayakadevi as well. After the death of His Father, he was forced to make a decision that would change the course of Medieval Nepal.

Ananta Malla, the most relied-upon Puppet Ruler of Nepal died in 1308 A.D. For Five years his Father Jayatunga Malla and Jayasaktideva had a constant battle on who to make the King of Nepal.

After the death of his Father, Jayarudra Malla decided to make Jayanandadeva, an old Uncle of their opposition the Puppet King of Nepal. This Agreement worked and Jayanandadeva ruled Nepal till 1320 A.D. The King was just a de-jure monarch and Jayarudra Malla was the actual ruler of Nepal.

After 1320 A.D. Jayanandadeva and he had a deep conflict with each other. Therefore, he withdrew his support from Jayanandadeva and made Jayari Malla became the King of Nepal.

During this period, the Sister of Jayarudra Malla arrived in Nepal for seeking asylum. The Tirhut Kingdom had just been invaded and defeated by Muslim Emperor Gayasuddhin Tughlaq. Her husband Harisimhadeva died in Dolakha but she survived and returned to her home Kingdom. The Arrival of Devaladevi became the Most Important Arrival in Nepal for the Early Medieval Period.

Fall of Jayarudra Malla

Suddenly, Jayarudra Malla actually died at the age of thirty when he was the de-facto ruler of Nepal. This caused a huge problem in the Tripura Royal Family as there was no male heir. He only had a daughter named Nayakadevi who was still a child.

At that moment, Padumalladevi, his mother, and Devaladevi, his sister came with the support of Nayakadevi stabilizing the dangerous situation that could have destroyed the whole identity of Nepal. After this, Khas Malla Kingdom started taking Tribute from Nepal in high amounts.


He was one of the most important figures of the Early Medieval Period of Nepal. He established Tripura Royal Family as the most powerful Family in Nepal. He also defeated rebellions that could have shaken the whole identity of Nepal.

He also provided asylum to his sister who in turn brought Jayastithi Malla to Nepal and changed the course of History forever.


  • Regmi, Dilli Raman. “Medieval Nepal” Four Volumes. Firma K, 1965-66
  • Shaha, R. (2001). Ancient and Medieval Nepal. India: Manohar.
  • Vajracharya, Dhanavajra, and Kamal P. Malla. “The Gopalraja Vamsavali” Nepal Research Centre Publications, 1985
  • Slusser, Mary S Nepal Mandala, “A Cultural Study of the Kathmandu Valley Two Volumes” Princeton University Press, 1982 C.E.
  • Levi Sylvain: Le Nepal, Etuda Historique d’um royaume Izindou, 3 volumes, Paris, 1905
  • Subedi, Raja Ram, 2061, “Nepalko Tathya Itihas,” Sajha Prakashan
  • Kirkpatrick: An Account of the Kingdom of Nepaul, London, 1811.
  • Sangraula, Narayan Prasad, 2068, “Prachin tatha Madhyakalin Nepal,” Kankai Publishers and Distributors


Pokhrel, A. (2023). Jayarudra Malla – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.