Introduction to Abhay Malla

Abhay Malla is the Second Malla King of Nepal who ruled from 1216 A.D. to 1255 A.D. For 39 years in the most disaster-filled History of Nepal. He was the eldest son of Ari Malla, the First Malla King of Nepal.

He was addressed with titles such as ‘Rajadhiraja Parameshwara Parambhattarak’, Nepaleshwar‘, and more. During his reign, earthquakes, Famine, Internal Rebellion, and External Invasion all happened.

Also, he was a patron of arts and learning and even encouraged it. He even sent Cultural Missions to Tibet and China.

Reign of Abhay Malla

Abhay Malla was the legal successor of Ari Malla. Abhay Malla was taught the details of Ruling from a young age. There are 22 Documents that have mentioned his reign as the King of Nepal.

Gopal Raja Bansawali on Abhay Malla

The Historical Inscriptions and Sources haven’t noted the Intricate Details of Life and Personality. However, his reign is famous in Nepal’s History as being one of the most unlucky and cursed.

Famine and Earthquake

According to various sources, 33% of Nepali people died due to the lack of daily necessities such as rice, salt, oil, etc. In the year 1241 A.D., a massive earthquake hit Nepal, destroying all houses and burying many people and animals.

It was tough to bear the attack of the crows and foxes when they tried to remove the buried corpses. Epidemics like cholera and smallpox also spread, leading to many people losing their wealth and forcing Nepalese to go abroad.

Internal Rebellions

Not only that, Abhay Malla had to deal with Internal Rebellions and External Attacks upon the Kathmandu Valley. Abhay Malla faced struggles with feudal lords like Ranasuradeva and Udayasinhadeva who rebelled in the year 1232 A.D.

To suppress the rebellion, Abhay Malla had to get help from Nuwakot, Banepa, Farping, Deupatan, and local rulers. Other Fedual Lords like the Kirtipal of Patan revolted against him to gain independence from the Central Malla Kingdom.

External Invasion By Ramasimhadeva

During the Reign of Abhay Malla in 1244 A.D., Tirhut Kingdom attacked him not once, not twice but thrice. The First Attack launched by Ramasimhadeva was successfully repealed by Abhay Malla at the loss of Military Commander Anargha Malla, a part of the Royal Family.

Another Raid was also raised by Ramasimhadeva the same year. It was also successfully reflected back with the help of Amaru Mahatha. In 1245 A.D., The Tirhutee attacked again and even reached Gokarna where they were eventually defeated in a partial way.


Finally, a devastating Earthquake occurred on 7th June 1255 A.D. in Nepal which also perished the One-Third Population of Nepal. Even King Abhay Malla was seriously injured because of the Earthquake.

He died of the Injuries from the Earthquake six days later probably being the First and Last King to be actually Killed by an Earthquake. After him, Jayadeva Malla ruled Nepal.


King Abhay Malla was one of the unluckiest kings in the History of Nepal. He was a great patron of arts and learning but was unable to develop Nepal in these aspects because of the continuous troubles of Famine, Internal Rebellion, and Attack of Tirhut Kingdom.

If these 39 Years were peaceful, he would have conducted significant changes in the History of Nepal. Probably, he would replace Jayastithi Malla and Yaksha Malla as the key rulers of the Early Medieval Period.


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Pokhrel, A. (2023). King Abhay Malla – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.