Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah

Introduction to Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah

Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah was the Shah King of Nepal from 1881 A.D. to 1911 A.D. During his reign, Nepal moved towards Modernization and several revolts were organized against the Rana Regime.

Further, Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah became the King of Nepal at a young age because of the death of his Father. Furthermore, his reign was dominated by the Prime Ministership of Chandra Shumsher.

Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah hatched plans to depose Chandra Shumsher and install a democratic government; however, the plot was uncovered. The Conspirators involved in overthrowing Chandra Shumsher were sent into Exile with the confiscation of Property.

As stated by multiple Historians, he was given a poisonous substance by Chandra Shumsher that led to his death. His son, Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah, succeeded him as the King of Nepal.

Rise of Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah

Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah was the eldest son of Trailokya Bir Bikram Shah and was born in 1875 A.D. He was the First King to have the genes of both the Shah and Rana Families. He was the Grandson of Surendra Bir Bikram Shah.

He had a lavish/privileged but limited childhood. His Father died in his infancy and his grandfather died when he was just 6 years of Age.

Therefore, he had to become the King of Nepal in his childhood. However, he didn’t require a Regent because the De-Facto Power was within The Rana Family led by Ranoddip Singh for five years.

It was during the reign of Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah that the 38 Saal Parva and 42 Saal Parva took Place. These events removed the Family of Jung Bahadur Rana from Power and Established the Shumsher’s into the Throne.

38 Saal Parva

38 Saal Parva was an important event in the history of the Rana Regime in Nepal, as it established the Shumsher Family as the new ruler and ended the Jung Family’s opportunity to hold the Prime Minister’s post.

Jung Bahadur Rana established a complex succession hierarchy that gave priority to his brothers and their sons over to his own sons and the grandchildren of his brothers. As Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah was young, the King didn’t mediate the meeting and Ranodip Singh Kunwar was in Charge of such affairs.

After Ranoddip Singh became prime minister, tension rose between Jagat Jung and Dhir Shumsher. Both wanted to become the next prime minister of Nepal although the hierarchy established Dhir Shumsher. When Ranoddip Singh did nothing to change the hierarchy list, the State of Affairs convuluted to a Secret Hatred for the others.

The Shumsher Family had a chance to seize power when Crown Prince Trailokya Bikram Shah and the then-commander-in-chief, Jagat Shumsher, passed away unexpectedly.

In the end, Jagat Jung’s plot to remove Ranoddip Singh and the Shumsher brothers failed, and 150 people, including Jagat Jung’s co-conspirators, were caught.

Dhir Shumsher wanted to give them a deterring punishment, and eventually, 21 men were sentenced to death in the 38 Saal Parva. It overturned the ongoing politics in Nepal and established the Shumsher family as the new rulers.

42 Saal Parva

The 42 Saal Parva was a historic event in Nepal that created The Sons of Dhir Shumsher as Shree Teen Maharajas and terminated the rights of J.B.R. descendants to hold the position of Prime Minister.

After the death of Jung Bahadur Rana, the rivalry of the Shumsher and Jung Families became well known to the Durbar of Nepal. Three Major Families became the Part of the Conflict: The Jung Family, the Shumsher Family and the Royal Family,

After the death of Crown Prince Trailokya, the Jung family was powerless. The Shumsher family killed Ranoddip Singh and aimed at capturing the post of Prime Minister for themselves.

Before claiming the Post of Prime Minister, Bir Shumsher hatched an extensive plan for the Killing of Prime Minister Ranodip Singh and Jagat Jung, the son of Jung Bahadur Rana.

Later Years

In Nepalese history, the Reign of Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah was a particularly terrible period. His Freedom was severely restricted and the Power which must be attributed to a King belonged to the Prime Minister.

Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah was forced to make Dev Shumsher Resign and take other decisions that he didn’t want to take. Therefore, he secretly planned to screw over Chandra Shumsher.

King Prithvi assembled a unique alliance in Nepal under Chandra Shumsher’s rule in order to topple the Rana dynasty and establish democracy. Nevertheless, the conspirators were banished after one of the alliance members told Chandra Shumsher about the plot.

Additionally, the king was secretly given a poisonous substance that gradually caused his demise. He died in 1911 A.D. and his son Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah became the King of Nepal.


Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah is characterized by some form of Development Activities and uprising against the Rana Regime. He had a tragic end to his Life. However, he failed to establish Democracy in Nepal.


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Pokhrel, A. (2023). King Surendra Bikram Shah – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.