Kings of Patan

Introduction to Visnusimha

Visnusimha, the King of Patan from 1536 A.D. to 1556 A.D., was a leading feudal overlord. He established as an Independent Kingdom from Kathmandu.

He claimed the Titles of King of Kings and the Wisest of Kings during his reign of 20 years.

Rise of Visnusimha

Visnusimha, one of the Seven Mahapatras, led Patan to independence less than ten years after Ratna Malla’s passing. Yaksha Malla‘s second-eldest son Ratna Malla ruled over Patan and Kathmandu when his father split Nepal into three kingdoms.

Following his demise in 1520 A.D., the Kingdom of Patan experienced a power vacuum. Making use of this void during Amara Malla‘s rule, Visnusimha became the King of Patan and liberated Patan from Kathmandu’s rule.

Family of Visnusimha

Jayasimha, his father, belonged to one of the powerful feudal families in charge of running Patan. Jayalaxmi, his mother, belonged to the commercial class and was a vaisya.

Visnusimha stressed his mother’s origins, even though his father was a nobleman. This was unusual at the period, since other monarchs wanted to associate their heritage with famous kṣatriya personages or lineages.

In addition, Visnusimha had three sons who followed him. They are Narasimha, Purandarsimha and Uddhavsimha. They all succeeded to the throne as Patan’s Kings upon his death.

Later, Purandarsimha emerged as the lone survivor and held political power in Patan until his fall.

Family of Visnusimha
Family Tree of Visnusimha

Reign of Visnusimha

Visnusimha was a devoted practitioner of both Shaivism and Vaisnavism. Even Buddhism was permitted to grow under his rule.

He enjoyed a very steady reign with no resistance from the Mahapatras, despite the fact that the specifics of his rule over Patan are unclear.

Visnusimha was given the plain surname Bharo in a Copper Plate Inscription dated 1556 A.D., rather than a regal surname, indicating that he had complete independence from other feudal lords and kings.

The kings of the Three Kingdoms of the Valley promised to behave well of one another and be friendly in the sake of peace and their territory, which made this inscription quite significant as well.

As his son, he passed away in 1556 A.D., according to the inscriptions and manuscripts that followed. His son’s admiration and enormous legacy are proof of his successful and kind rule over Patan. It is reported that he was able to bind and enact beneficial religious laws and decrees over the Patan Kingdom.

The titles “The Best of Kings,” “The King of Kings,” and “Other Epithet of Mangaladhipati” have also been bestowed upon him. Thus, it may be assumed that the People of Patan acknowledged and tolerated the Reign of Visnusimha to some extent.

Inscription of Bringeshwor of Visnu Simha


Visnusimha was a follower of both Vaisnavism and Shaivism, and during his reign, all religions were allowed to flourish. He had a stable reign in Patan with minimal opposition, and his three sons succeeded him as kings of Patan.


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