Gopal Dynasty Mahispal Dynasty

Introduction to Gopal Dynasty

Gopal Dynasty is considered the First Dynasty to rule Nepal. The Word Gopal means Cow Herders. The Gopal Dynasty belongs to The Nip Dynasty or Nip Clan. They arrived in Nepal alongside Lord Krishna from Indian Sub-Continent and defeated Danasur and Naga Tribes to Rule Nepal.

Eight Kings of the Gopal Dynasty ruled Nepal for 521 Years. The First King of the Gopal Dynasty was Bhumi Gupta according to Gopal Raja Bansawali.

The Capital City of the Gopal Kings was located in Mata Tirtha which is 4 Miles South-West of Kathmandu. They are famous for having discovered Pashupatinath Temple and starting settlements in Kathmandu Valley.

The Last King of the Gopal Dynasty was Jita Gupta who was overthrown by Abhir Mahispals or Mahispal Dynasty. Historian Dhanabajra Bajracharya states that the timeline of the Gopal Dynasty is from 1611 A.D. to 1411 A.D

Beginning of the Gopal Dynasty

Before the Arrival of the Gopal Dynasty, Kathmandu Valley was a large lake that was drained by Manjushree. Manjushree also established a settlement called Manjupattan and made Dharmakar The King of Nepal.

Centuries Later, Naga or Snake Tribe along with Danasur were wreaking havoc in the Kathmandu Valley. In Consequence, Lord Krishna came to Nepal alongside Gopal and defeated Danasur.

There was a vicious War between the Gopal Dynasty and the Naga Tribe which Gopal’s won because of the help of Lord Krishna. Lord Krishna also cut the gorge of Chovar and made Kathmandu inhabitable again.

Lord Krishna left but Gopal migrated to the Kathmandu Valley. The Gopal Dynasty was the Abhir of the Saraswati River of West India. They migrated by crossing the Gandaki River and arrived at the Kathmandu Valley.

After defeating the Naga Tribe, Gopal Dynasty started permanent settlement practices in Kathmandu Valley. They utilized the dense forests and natural resources of Nepal.

(Note: It is a Myth and has no Factual Evidence.)

Gopal was primarily concerned with agriculture and animal husbandry. The name Gopal also means Cow Herder or The Servant of the Lands.

 Although Gopal Dynasty lived in Nepal, they were no kings in Nepal. A saint by the name of “Ne” had been provided responsibility by the gods to Protect Nepal. Hence, it was only after his blessing that someone could rule Nepal. Consequently, an Event happened.

First King of the Gopal Dynasty

One of the Cows of the Gopal Dynasty named Brahuri always went to the riverside of Bagmati and offered her milk to the site.

One of the leaders or Sardar of the Gopal Dynasty noticed the event and ordered his men to investigate the matter. After some investigation, The Sardar arrived at the Bagmati riverside. Suddenly, a Jyotirlinga (Reflected Light of Lord Shiva) appeared and killed The Sardar.

Saint Ne was meditating in Teku when he heard of the death of Sardar. He immediately went to the Bagmati Riverside and was made the son of the Sardar the King of Nepal. The name of the son of the Sardar was Bhumi Gupta. Therefore, Bhumi Gupta became the King of Nepal because of the death of his Father and the assistance of Ne Muni.

Capital City of Gopal Dynasty

Bhumi Gupta made Mata Tirtha which is 4 miles South-West of Kathmandu the capital city of the Gopal Dynasty. Bhumi Gupta established Absolute Monarchy in Nepal. The Major Occupation was Agriculture and Animal Husbandry. Gopal Dynasty followed Shaivism, a cult of Hinduism. They were devoted to Lord Shiva. Some were also devoted to Lord Krishna and Vaishnavism.

All Kings of the Gopal Dynasty

No.KingsYears
1Bhumi Gupta86 Years
2Dharma Gupta91 Years
3Bhim Gupta34 Years
4Bishnu Gupta46 Years
5Jaya Gupta73 Years
6Harsha Gupta67 Years
7Mani Gupta37 Years
8Jita Gupta71 Years

Gopal Raja Bansawali

No.KingsYears
1Bhumi Gupta84 Years
2Param Gupta91 Years
3Bhim Gupta38 Years
4Bishnu Gupta46 Years
5Jaya Gupta73 Years
6Harsha Gupta67 Years
7Mati Gupta37 Years
8Yaksha Gupta70 Years

Bhasa Bansawali

Eight Kings of the Gopal Dynasty ruled Nepal for 505 Years according to Gopal Raja Bansawali. According to Bhasa Bansawali 8 Kings of the Gopal Dynasty ruled Nepal for 436 years and 3 Months.

Listicles of Kings of the Gopal Dynasty

  1. Bhumi Gupta
  2. Dharma Gupta
  3. Bhim Gupta
  4. Bishnu Gupta
  5. Jaya Gupta
  6. Harsha Gupta
  7. Mani Gupta
  8. Jita Gupta
  1. The First King of the Gopal Dynasty was Bhumi Gupta who ruled for 86 years according to Gopal Raja Bansawali whereas Bhumi Gupta ruled for 84 years according to Bhasa Bansawali.
  2. The Second King of the Gopal Dynasty was Dharma Gupta who ruled for 91 Years according to Gopal Raja Bansawali. Bhasa Bansawali mentions that Param Gupta ruled for 91 years as the Second King of the Gopal Dynasty
  3. The Third King of the Gopal Dynasty was Bhim Gupta who ruled for 34 Years according to Gopal Raja Bansawali. Bhasa Bansawali mentions that Bhim Gupta ruled for 38 years.
  4. The Fourth King of the Gopal Dynasty was Bishnu Gupta who ruled for 46 Years according to Gopal Raja Bansawali. Bhasa Bansawali mentions that Bishnu Gupta ruled for 46 years.
  5. The Fifth King of the Gopal Dynasty was Jaya Gupta who ruled for 73 Years according to Gopal Raja Bansawali. Bhasa Bansawali mentions that Jaya Gupta ruled for 73 years.
  6. The Sixth King of the Gopal Dynasty was Harsha Gupta who ruled for 67 Years according to Gopal Raja Bansawali. Bhasa Bansawali mentions that Harsha Gupta ruled for 67 years.
  7. The Seventh King of the Gopal Dynasty was Mani Gupta who ruled for 37 Years according to Gopal Raja Bansawali. Bhasa Bansawali mentions that Mati Gupta ruled for 37 years.
  8. The Last King of the Gopal Dynasty was Jita Gupta who ruled for 71 Years according to Gopal Raja Bansawali. Bhasa Bansawali mentions that Yaksha Gupta ruled for 70 years as the last King of the Gopal Dynasty.

Last King of the Gopal Dynasty

The Last King of the Gopal Dynasty Jita Gupta was childless. Hence, Abhir Mahispals came to Kathmandu knowing that the throne would be empty. Jita Gupta was replaced by Mahispals and the reign of Cow Herders was ended by Buffalo Herders.

Contributions of the Gopal Dynasty

Monarchy

Gopal Dynasty was the first Dynasty to rule Nepal. They established Kingship and Monarchy in Nepal which continued till 2063 B.S. They were the initiators of Politics. Gopal Dynasty also made Mata Tirtha the Capital City and established many villages in Nepal.

Border

The Border of Nepal during the reign of the Gopal Dynasty was Dudh Koshi in the East, Trishuli in the West, Gosainkunda in the North, and Chitlang in the South. Gopal Dynasty ruled the areas surrounding Kathmandu Valley.

Habitations

The Places where Gopal Dynasty lived are:

  1. Kirtipur
  2. Thankot
  3. Balambu
  4. Tistung
  5. Palung
  6. Sakhu
  7. Manichud
  8. Changu etc…

Pashupatinath

The Jyotirlinga of Pashupatinath was discovered during the time of the Gopal Dynasty. Pashupatinath has been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is one of the greatest temples in Nepal and one of the greatest temples for devotees of Lord Shiva.

Naming of Nepal

  1. Gopal Dynasty belongs to Nip Clan. So, The Land where Nip run their livelihood or Nip and Ala make Nepal.
  2. The Kingmaker “Ne” was ordered by Gods to Protect Nepal. So, the Land protected by Ne is known as Nepal.

Conclusion of the Gopal Dynasty

Consequently, Gopal Dynasty is one of the most remembered and iconic Dynasties in Nepali History. They ruled Nepal for many centuries. Although not much proof exists to support Gopal Dynasty, they are largely accepted as the First Dynasty to rule Nepal. The Gupta Surname of the Gopal Dynasty still lives to this day.

Introduction to Mahispal Dynasty

Mahispal Dynasty is the second Dynasty to rule Nepal. The Word Mahispal means Buffalo Herders. So, they were similar to Gopal’s. Mahispal Dynasty was part of the Larger Abhir Clan.

They belonged to Rajput or Kingly Families of India. Before Mahispal Dynasty ruled Nepal, they arrived in the Terai region of Nepal from Madhya Pradesh of India. The first King of the Mahispal Dynasty was Bar Singh according to Gopal Raja Bansawali.

Three Kings of the Mahispal Dynasty ruled Nepal for 161 Years and 2 months. The Timeline of The Mahispal Dynasty is from 1411 A.D. to 1336 A.D. according to Historian Dhanabajra Bajracharya.

The Capital City and system of Governance of the Mahispal Dynasty were the same as Gopal Dynasty. Mahispal’s also primarily engaged in Agriculture and Animal Husbandry. Although they are known as Buffalo Herders, it is just an allegory to refer to them as Cattle Herders.

First King of the Mahispal Dynasty

The Original Land or Place of the Mahispal Dynasty was Madhya Pradesh. They belonged to the Rajput Family and had the right to be Kings. Slowly, They started to migrate north and reached the Terai Region of Nepal. They settled in the middle of the Mithila Kingdom and Tirhut Kingdom.

Mahispal Dynasty is also known as Abhir Mahispals. Abhir means a race present in West and North-West India. They are even mentioned in the Mahabharat and Other Puranas. Some even say that they are the direct descendants of Lord Krishna and The Yadav Clan.

Anyways, when they had settled into the Terai Region, they were informed of the Childless condition of Jita Gupta. Thus, One of the Leaders of Mahispal’s named Bar Singh arrived at the Kathmandu Valley and laid his claim upon the throne. Hence, Bar Singh became the First King of the Mahispal Dynasty

Historian Kirkpatrick mentions that Mahispal Dynasty had a vicious battle against Gopal Dynasty and became the Second Dynasty to rule Nepal led by Bar Singh.

All Kings of The Mahispal Dynasty

No.KingsYears
1Bar Singh49 Years
2Jaya Singh71 Years
3Bhuwan Singh41 Years

Gopal Raja Bansawali

No.KingsYears
1Bar Singh49 Years
2Jaya Mati Singh21 Years
3Bhuwan Singh41 Years

Bhasa Bansawali

Three Kings of the Mahispal Dynasty ruled Nepal for 161 Years and 2 Months according to Gopal Raj Bansawali. Bhasa Bansawali states that the three Kings of the Mahispal Dynasty ruled Nepal for 111 Years and 7 Months.

Listicles of Kings of The Mahispal Dynasty

  1. Bar Singh
  2. Jaya Singh
  3. Bhuwan Singh
  1. The First King of the Mahispal Dynasty was Bar Singh who ruled for 49 years according to Gopal Raja Bansawali. Bhasa Bansawali mentions that Bar Singh ruled as the First King of the Mahispal Dynasty for 49 years as well.
  2. The Second King of the Mahispal Dynasty was Jaya Singh who ruled for 71 Years according to Gopal Raja Bansawali. Bhasa Bansawali mentions that Jaya Mati Singh ruled for 21 years as the Second King of the Mahispal Dynasty.
  3. The Last King of the Gopal Dynasty was Bhuwan Singh who ruled for 41 Years according to Gopal Raja Bansawali. Bhasa Bansawali mentions that Bhuwan Singh ruled for 41 years.

Border of Mahispal Dynasty

The Border of the Mahispal Dynasty was River Dudhkoshi in the East, Trishuli in the West, Nilkantha in the North, and Chitlang in the South. The Border didn’t change much during the reign of the Mahispal Dynasty.

The Habitations of the Gopal and Mahispal Dynasties were also the same. Not much development happened during the reign of the Mahispal Dynasty.

Last King of The Mahispal Dynasty

The Last King of the Mahispal Dynasty was Bhuwan Singh who ruled Nepal for 41 years. At the same time, Kirat Dynasty arrived from East Nepal to Kathmandu Valley. There was a war between the Mahispal and the Kirat Dynasty which was won by the Kirat Dynasty because of the Great Commander Yalung or Yalamber.

Consequently, Kirat Dynasty became the Third Dynasty to rule Nepal by defeating Mahispal Dynasty. The Kirats were also defeated and Lichhavi Dynasty under Probably Jayadeva First started to rule Nepal.

Citation

Pokhrel, A. (2023). Gopal and Mahispal Dynasty – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History. https://itihasaa.com/pre-history/gopal-and-mahispal-dynasty/