Victim of 38 Saal Parva

Introduction to 38 Saal Parva

38 Saal Parva was an important event in the History of the Rana Regime. 38 Saal Parva ended the opportunity of the Jung Family to the Prime Minister post and established Shumsher Family led by Dhir Shumsher to inherit the Rana Regime.

Jagat Jung, the eldest son of Jung Bahadur Rana was removed from the Role of Succession because of the 38 Saal Parva. The Story starts with the role of Succession set by Jung Bahadur Rana.

Role of Succession by J.B.R.

Fig: Hierarchy Set by Jung Bahadur Rana

This hierarchy neither satisfied his sons, his brothers, nor the sons of his brothers. His sons were dismayed that J.B.R. prioritized his brothers over his sons. Even kings have a straight-down hierarchy from father to son.

In contrast, this hierarchy was from Father to Uncle to son. His brothers were displeased that their sons were at the bottom of the pecking order. The sons of the brothers weren’t happy because Jung Bahadur Rana put his grandchildren before the sons of his brothers.

For them, the Rolakram or Hierarchy List was biased, and they wouldn’t get the opportunity to be prime ministers.

Anyways, Ranoddip Singh succeeded Jung Bahadur Rana as prime minister. He was a religious man. After Ranoddip Singh, Jagat Shumsher was next in line, followed by Dhir Shumsher. So, there was a tense situation in the Rana family.

This situation became more heated when Ranoddip Singh did nothing to change the hierarchy list.

Murder of Trailokya Bikram Shah

Jagat Jung, the son of Jung Bahadur Rana, and Dhir Shumsher, the brother of Jung Bahadur, despised each other. They had a terrible relationship. Hence, “The Death of Jung Bahadur” meant do or die for both.

Jagat Singh planned to be prime minister after Ranoddip Singh. The Crown Prince at the time, Trailokya Bikram Shah, also supported Jagat Jung.

Trailokya; 38 Saal Parva
Crown Prince Trailokya

The Royal Family would support the Jung family because of their marital relations. However, Trailokya Bikram Shah suddenly died on 1934 B.S. Chaitra 16, or 1878 March 30. No one knew why he died. It was actually due to the poisoning of Dhir Shumsher, but other rumors were spread.

Within one year, Jagat Shumsher, the then commander-in-chief, died. Dhir Shumsher was appointed as Nepal’s Commander-in-Chief, and Jagat Jung was appointed as the country’s Western Commander.

The position of Western Commander was much higher in power. As a result, Dhir Shumsher maintained his desire to be the Western Commander.

Jagat Jung said he would agree if after the death of Ranoddip Singh, the Commander-in-Chief (himself) would be Prime Minister. Dhir Shumsher couldn’t agree to such a self-destructive proposition.

In 1937, B.S. Jagat Jung and Prince Narendra Bikram Shah planned to kill Ranoddip Singh twice but failed miserably. They also conspired against Dhir Shumsher. Dhir Shumsher’s numerous sons had all grown up. Bir Shumsher, Dev Shumsher, and Chandra Shumsher were all adults by then.

Thus, in the final attempt of Jagat Jung to remove Ranoddip Singh and the Shumsher Brothers, the 38 Saal Parva happened.

Events of 38 Saal Parva

Meanwhile, Ranoddip Singh decided to go on a pilgrimage, leaving Dhir Shumsher, the commander-in-chief, to rule Nepal. Dhir Shumsher capitalized on this moment and became very powerful alongside his sons.

Circumstantially, King Surendra also died in 1937 B.S. As Crown Prince Trailokya was also dead, Trailokya’s son, or Surendra’s grandson, Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah, was made the King of Nepal at the age of five.

Narendra Bikram Shah, along with Bikram Thapa and possibly Jagat Jung, developed a major plot in the year 38. The plot was for the assassination of Prime Minister Ranoddip Singh. Ranoddip Singh had gone hunting in the Terai.

Hence, they planned to kill him. The plot reached Dhir Shumsher, and he called Ranoddip Singh to Kathmandu. Dhir Shumsher immediately ordered every conspirator to be caught. In total, 150 people were caught. The major ones were Narendra and Bikram Thapa.

Consequences of 38 Saal Parva

Dhir Shumsher wanted to give them a deterring punishment. The British Embassy and Ranoddip Singh were against it. Narendra Bikram Shah and Ranoddip Singh were sent to Illahabad Prison.

Jagat Jung was also completely removed from the hierarchy list. The one who reported the conspiracy to Dhir Shumsher was also provided with the punishment.

According to the Nepalese account, 21 men were sentenced to death in the 38 Saal Parva. The execution was carried out with 18 stabs to the chest with a Khukuri.

Another account states that 41 men were killed. Not only that, the caste of some Brahmins was lowered as well. Many Brahmins were punished, although the death penalty wasn’t given.

This event overturned the ongoing politics in Nepal. The Shumsher family, led by Dhir Shumsher, became the most powerful in Nepal after 38 Saal Parva.

Because Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah was only 5 years old at the time, the royal family was severely weakened. and the Crown Prince and King had died. The Jung family was removed from the hierarchy, and they became very weak with few glimpses of hope.

Prince Narendra’s property was confiscated. At the time, it was worth Rs. 18 lakhs. Also, the Shumsher family began living like royalty. In the future, the Shumsher family would reign over Nepal under the regime that was built by their elder uncle.

They would even kill Jung Bahadur’s sons to achieve that. Thus, the hint of inner conflicts was planted from the start.


Other factors contribute to the significance of the 38 Saal Parva. The dependency of Nepal on Britain and its Embassy can be witnessed. This authority of the British Embassy was established by Hudgson.

Also, it shows the inner division and conspiracies that will follow Nepalese history. The quarrel further increases between the brothers of the Shumsher family instead.

They used relentless and vicious tactics to gain power, including deceiving, forcing, and exiling their brothers and relatives.


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Pokhrel, A. (2023). 38 Saal Parva – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.