Kot Parva

Introduction to Kot Parva

The Kot Parva was one of the Three Parvas that established Jung Bahadur Kunwar as the Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief of Nepal. Kot Parva happened in the Kot Palace due to the assassination of a Powerful Courtier called Gagan Singh Khawas.

Jung Bahadur and His Family killed most of the Pande Family in this massacre and is also known as Pande Parva.

Assassination of Gagan Singh Khawas

After Bhimsen Thapa was removed from Mukhtiyari, many others, such as Ranajung Pande, Ranganath Poudel, and Phatte Jung Shah, were provided the post.

On Jestha of 1902, B.S. Mathwar Singh Thapa was also assassinated, and a joint cabinet was formed under Phatte Jung Shah, Gagan Singh Khawas, and Abhiman Singh Rana. Phatte Jung Shah discovered the affair between Gagan Singh Khawas and Rajyalaxmi. There are various interpretations of how, why, and who killed Gagan Singh Khawas.

Some believe that Phatte Jung Shah hired Lal Jha to do it. Some believe it was carried out with the help of Jung Bahadur and the King. Anyways, the Nepalese Court was deeply rooted in the chaos, perplexity, and confusion following the assassination.

The queen was shocked, disturbed, and depressed. The queen, who was quite powerful by then, wanted to get her hands on the murderer.

Meeting in Kot Palace

Queen Rajyalaxmi poured Gangajal in the face of the dead Gagan Singh Khawas and promised to avenge the murderers. She didn’t allow any of his wives to go to Sati. Rajyalaxmi also spent Rs. 1 lakh to complete the funeral rites.

At the time, the Queen was looking for an ally, and Jung Bahadur was looking for power. Jung Bahadur met the Queen and, through words and actions, illustrated himself as her supporter. He earned the favor of the queen.

The Queen told Jung Bahadur to call an assembly of all Bhardars in Kot Palace for the investigation of the murder. Rajyalaxmi also pledged to remain hungry until the murderer was found.

Jung Bahadur provided the notice to everyone, and most of the Bhardars were present at the Kot Palace where the Kot Parva would happen. Jung Bahadur and his brothers had shown their loyalty to the Queen and arrived with an army of their own.

The Prime Minister, Phatte Jung Shah, and his relatives hadn’t arrived at the time. Even King Rajendra Bikram Shah had arrived. But who was the murderer?

Investigation in Kot Parva

Kishor Pande, a courtier of the Pande family, was made the prime suspect. Rajyalaxmi, the queen, gave the order to kill Kishor Pande. The order was given to Abhiman Singh Rana, who asked the King to make the decision.

The King, Rajendra Bikram Shah, exclaimed that a proper investigation would occur before killing anyone and leaving the palace. Even the King couldn’t face the rage and wrath of Queen Rajyalaxmi.

Immediately, the King ordered Phatte Jung Shah to depart for the Kot Palace. After that, King Rajendra Bikram Shah traveled to the British Embassy for serious discussions with the diplomat. The Diplomat informed the King of his illness and said he would be unable to meet with him.

Meanwhile, Phatte Jung reached the Kot Palace and declared that a proper investigation would happen before the conviction of anyone. After hearing this, Queen Rajyalaxmi grabbed a sword by the hand and started throwing a tantrum.

She was reaching a point of extreme madness, as it seemed. She told Abhiman Singh Rana to kill Bidur Shah, but Abhiman Singh Rana tried to escape. Jung Bahadur Kunwar, his brothers, and the army killed Abhiman Singh Rana.

When Abhiman Singh Rana was dying, he declared that Jung Bahadur Kunwar had killed Gagan Singh Khawas.

This exclamation sparked yet another round of discussions and battles. The sons of Phatte Jung Shah and the brothers of Jung Bahadur Kunwar commenced a contest, a fight of sorts, against one another.

In the battle of Dhir Shumsher, the brother of Jung Bahadur Kunwar killed Chautariya Khadga Bikram Shah, the son of Phatte Jung Shah. This event happened when Phatte Jung was busy with other matters.

Jung Bahadur Kunwar was scared to death. He scolded his brothers and warned them that Kunwar would be killed. Jung Bahadur went up to Fatte Jung Shah and told him about the sad news.

Phatte Jung Shah was alarmed by hearing that and decided to lament with the Queen. When Phatte Jung Shah was going to the Queen to give her the account of the death of his son, Jung Bahadur ordered his brothers to kill him.

Phatte Jung Shah was also stabbed and died.

Phatte Jung Shah

Murder of Kot Parva

The chaotic situation reached its peak when the Queen ordered the killing of all the responsible Bhardars. Because the primary suspect was a Pande, many Pandes were killed in the massacre. Major political players and courtiers were all killed by the Kunwar family.

Only some of the Bhardars escaped through the wall and other places. According to an estimate, 31 lives were lost that day, including 3 Chautariyas and 7 Kajis. The Kot Parva, which killed more than 30 courtiers, is regarded as one of the most notorious and bloody massacres in Nepalese history.

The bodies of the dead were piled up, and their funeral rites were conducted in groups. Some of the bodies couldn’t be identified either. After such a bloody event, Queen Rajyalami expected that Crown Prince Surendra would be reluctant to become King.

She tried her best to play with Surendra’s psyche and manipulate him because the queen wanted her son Ranendra to be king instead of Surendra. But Jung Bahadur heard the tactics used by the queen. Jung Bahadur assured Prince Surendra that he would be safe and that Jung Bahadur would provide safety to them.

As the prince wasn’t ready to leave the crown and Ranendra didn’t seem to have the chance to be king, the queen gave more threats of escape to the king. The decision of the King remained unchanged.

The King also wanted to retire in Benaras and live a peaceful life but wasn’t allowed.


After the event, Jung Bahadur Kunwar was provided with power over the military and made Commander-in-Chief of Nepal by the Queen. The queen expected that Jung Bahadur would help her make Prince Ranendra king.

King Rajendra Bikram Shah

King Rajendra was furious at Jung Bahadur for causing such a scandal, but he couldn’t punish him. Finally, Jung Bahadur would be named Mukhtiyar, Commander-in-Chief, and Buddha General of Nepal.


Most historians portray Kot Parva as an event that Jung Bahadur meticulously planned and executed. Jung Bahadur is made to seem like a blood-hungry tyrant, which isn’t the case.

Jung Bahadur had less commanding capability at the beginning of the Kot Parva. The killing of Phatte Jung Shah’s son by Dhir Shumsher was the turning point for the Kunwar family.

Although Jung Bahadur was scared to death, that moment was the reason for his being Commander-in-Chief of Nepal. The event was an instantaneous one and was led by instinct, not rationality.

Anyways, the remaining tasks for Jung Bahadur were to maintain his grasp and overpower and kill his opposition, which happens in the Bhandarkhal Parva.


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Pokhrel, A. (2023). Kot Parva – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History. https://itihasaa.com/rana-events/kot-parva/