Introduction to Gaunda

Gaunda was an Administrative Office during the Rana Regime for managing several districts in the hilly regions of Nepal. Each Gaunda had a Chief appointed by the Prime Minister. They were expected to administer districts where the influence of Bada Hakim couldn’t suffice.

Basically, Gaunda was the Chief of Bada Hakim and had a direct connection with the Commanding Generals of the Region. There were Three Important Gaundas during the Rana Regime in Nepal.

The First One was Dhankuta, which looked after the six districts of the Eastern Region of Nepal. In the West were Palpa and Doti. Palpa looked after 14 Hilly Districts of Nepal. In the Far West was Doti which was the extension of Palpa and had to obey Palpa.

Functions of Gaunda

District Administration

Gaunda has to suprevise the District Governments in the Hilly and Mountainous Regions of Nepal. The Gaunda Chief has to manage the Districts under his Juridiction by appointing other Government Officers under him.

So,the Hakim of Gaunda had to work through the respective Local Governmental Bodies in the districts. They had to coordinate with the Zamindars (landowners) and Patwaris (revenue collectors for Muluki Khana) of different districts to collect revenue for the government. The Heads of Local Villages were also appointed by Gaunda.

Law and Order

The district administration was in charge of a number of duties which is upholding law and order and tax collection. They had to keep peace and order by working with Police Goshwara when possible.

They had to prevent revolutionary activities against the Rana Regime and act in good faith with the Regime.

Revenue Collection

The Gaunda was also expected to collect the Revenue from the Citizens of the Districts under its Jurisdiction. Their Chief Source of Revenue was the Zamindar and Patwari. Therefore, an effective coordination with them was deemed mandatory.

Representation of Central Administration

The Gaunda was the Official Representation of the Central Administration in Nepal. In the western hills, Doti Gaunda was opened due to the distance.

Doti Gaunda had to work under Palpa Gaunda. The Palpa Gaunda oversaw fourteen districts in the west hills. The Hakim of Gaunda had to maintain transportation routes. They had to flow regular information to the Center or the Badahakim whenever possible


The Gaunda was a Large Administrative Office designed to administer the Hilly and Mountainous districts of Nepal. There were three Gaundas in Nepal and each of them had a Chief of Gaunda. The Major Duties of Gaunda was: Maintain Law and Order, Collect Revenue, Represent the Central Government and Prevent Revolts.


Pokhrel, A. (2023). Gaunda – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.