Juddha Shumsher

Introduction to Juddha Shumsher

Juddha Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana, born on April 19, 1875, at Narayanhiti Palace in Durbar Marg, Kathmandu, Nepal, was the Prime Minister of Nepal from September 1, 1932, to November 29, 1945.

He was the youngest amongst the Shumsher Brothers, who reigned over Nepal after 42 Saal Parva.

He was the Field Marshal and Maharaja of Lamjung and Kaski. He is among the well-known Prime Ministers in Nepal.

The Nepal-Bihar Earthquake, 1934 A.D. struck during his reign, after which he repaired Dharahara. Juddha Shumsher had a total of twenty sons and daughters.

Early Life and Rise to Power

Juddha Shumsher was the 15th of Commander-in-Chief Dhir Shumsher’s 17 sons. He was born in Baisakh in 1932 to Juhar Kumari. His life was challenging from the beginning since he was born weak. Commander-in-Chief Dhir Shumsher was killed in 1941 A.D. while Juddha was just ten years old.

Jung Bahadur promoted Juddha Shumsher to colonel at a young age during his Annaprashana ceremony. Unfortunately, when he was nine years old, his father, Dhir Shumsher died, and his brothers raised him


After 42 Saal Parva, Juddha Shumsher’s elder brother Bir Shumsher Shumsher became prime minister by assassinating Ranoddip Singh . Juddha was promoted to general and awarded a stipend of 21,000 Nepalese rupees (NPR).

Juddha Shumsher was enrolled in school at twelve, but due to his poor health, he had to discontinue his education. He resided with Bhim Shumsher Shumsher then, who also performed his Upanayana ritual. He married Padma Kumari Devi of Gulmi in 1888 A.D.

Juddha’s mother, unable to pay the dowry, requested Bir Shumsher to look after her son when she died. Juddha was promoted to general ranking 9th in the Rana Hierarchy after Bir Shumsher became the Prime Minister.

Bir Shumsher had granted Juddha Shumsher Thapathali Darbar but refused to reside in a palace without a compound.

As a result, Bir bestowed upon him the Jawalakhel Darbar. Although Juddha Shumsher was born a colonel, he nearly died from blood clots when he was 19 years old.

He climbed the Ranks of the Rana Hierarchy as a Government Officer during the reign of his Brothers, Dev Shumsher, Chandra Shumsher, and Bhim Shumsher.

Great Earthquake in Nepal

A large earthquake rocked Nepal on January 15, 1934, at exactly two o’clock in the afternoon. It inflicted deterring Destruction and Loss of Life in the Nepalese and Indian Populace

The earthquake was also known as the Nepal-Bihar earthquake. It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in Nepalese History.


The Great Earthquake of 1934 destroyed property and infrastructure. It left a path of devastation in its wake. Official data show that the earthquake killed 8,519 individuals and wounded 15,000 more.

Over 207,740 dwellings were destroyed. The earthquake caused the displacement and impoverishment of countless families. According to the then-Gorkhapatra, the death toll was far greater, with 16,875 people killed and almost 33 lakh Houses damaged.


Juddha Shumsher was touring West Nepal at the time of the earthquake, and upon his return to Kathmandu, he formed an earthquake relief fund. He put 4 lakhs in the rescue fund in his and his queen’s names, and other employees and Stakeholders contributed to the cause.

In addition, the government provided 29,82,316/- in interest-free loans for the building and upkeep of earthquake-damaged homes. While the government supplied basic requirements for the victims, it also made large loans, which Juddha Shumsher redeemed.

A service team was organized in Kathmandu, and rescue efforts had already begun. Padma Shumsher, Jangi Lath, the Commanding General of the West, was the Leader of that service squad.

However, Juddha Shumsher was concerned that Padma Shumsher might become more popular than him. He disbanded the service committee led by Padma Shumsher. Juddha Shumsher then formed another service team for the Rescue.

Previously, in 1933 (1990 AD), Bir Shumsher’s mansion, the White Palace, was destroyed by fire. Bir Shumsher’s eldest son, Gehendra Shumsher, inherited the building after his father died.

Bir Shumsher had spent 50 lakhs to create the White Palace, and its demolition was a severe financial loss. However, after the Fire, it resulted in the establishment of Nepal’s first fire department. After him, Padma Shumsher and Mohan Shumsher became the Prime Ministers of Nepal.

Reforms of Juddha Shumsher

Juddha Shumsher, Nepal’s 3rd Last Shree Teen Maharaja and Prime Minister, ruled from 1932 to 1945 A.D. for 14 years. Nepal brought several Constitutional, Administrative and Political Reforms in comparison of his Predecessors and Successors.

Establishment of the Industry Council

On November 24, 1935, Juddha Shumsher established the Industry Council for stimulating Nepalese Growth. The primary goal of this council was to foster growth in a variety of disciplines such as manufacturing, agriculture, and trade.

The Council of Industries was founded under the supervision of Bahadur Shumsher, Juddha Shumsher’s son and the commanding general of the North.

Construction of Industrial Law

Juddha Shumsher established the Private Company Act in 1944 to encourage capitalists to invest their resources in the sector. Individuals creating new industries or enterprises were required by legislation to register.

Previously, Nepali businessmen either invested in foreign companies or amassed a collection of jewels and decorations. The Nepal Companies Act, passed in 1836-37, also aided industrial growth.

Establishment of Nepal Bank Limited

Nepal Bank Limited was formed in 1937 A.D., and its branches in seven distinct locations.

Juddha Shumsher contributed 30,000 Nepali rupees to the bank’s inaugural operation, which was founded with a capital investment of one crore Nepali rupees.

Bahadur Shumsher, Juddha Shumsher’s son and the commanding general of the North, was the bank’s director. Nepal Bank Limited operated as the central bank prior to the foundation of Nepal Rastra Bank.

Its goal was to make Nepal self-sufficient by promoting education, commerce, industry, agriculture, and the arts.

Establishment of Big Industries

During his rule, Juddha Shumsher founded a number of enterprises, which we will look at in more detail below.

Biratnagar Jute Mills Limited

In 1936, Jute Mills Limited was formed in Biratnagar with a total investment of Nepali Rupees 16 lakhs. The mill had 200 new tans originally, which were eventually enlarged to 258. After a period, the number of tans fell to 158.

Juddha Match Factory Limited

In 1938, Juddha Match Factory Limited was formed in Birgunj with an initial investment of 160,000 Nepali rupees.  

At the time of creation, the industry generated 60 to 70 salais each day. Before the foundation of this sector, salai was imported to Nepal from Japan, Norway, Sweden, etc.

Cotton Mills

In 1942, a cotton mill was created in Birgunj with an investment of 7 lakh Nepali rupees. As Birganj Cotton Mills could not fulfill the demand, Morang Cotton Mill was created in Biratnagar with an investment of Nepali Rupees 9 lakhs. At that time, the Morang cotton factory could produce 63 lakh 75 thousand yards of yarn.

Nepal Plywood and Co. Ltd.

In 1943, Nepal Plywood Co. was created with an investment of Rs. 13 lakhs. Similarly, tiny businesses, including ceramics, paper, soap, mining, Nursing Khola salt, furniture, and pottery, were also formed.

Juddha Shumsher coordinated the training on the loom, spinning wheel, thread, and technology through “Gharelu Eelam Prachar Adda.”

In June 1994, a 12-day industry show was staged in Nepal, and similar exhibits were held in 1996 and 2001. The finest performers in such exhibitions were recognized.

In 2000, the Judh Canal was created in the Sarlahi area. Juddha Shumsher also implemented various reforms in the civil service and the police service, including retirement and Sainik Dravykosh (now Employees’ Provident Fund).

Artistic Reforms

He created the Nepali Academy of Fine Arts and introduced the notion of contemporary art in Nepal. He was also an ardent art collector.

Social Reforms

He put a stop to several habits and behaviors that were prominent in Nepalese society, such as child marriage and gambling. He also prohibited the use of tobacco among children.

Juddha Shumsher made a rule that boys could not get married until they reached the age of 18 years and girls until they reached the age of 14 years. He announced that Tamangs cannot eat dead cows and bulls. Juddha Shumsher improved the Defecation Act by making a contemporary amendment to it.

Juddha Shumsher also brought about changes to the mourning period. Until his reign, it was customary to observe a year of impurity after the death of a family member.

However, Juddha Shumsher reduced this period to 13 days for most people. Upadhyaya Brahmins were the only exception, who would have to observe a mourning period of 13 days after the death of their parents.

Military and Administrative Reforms

He guaranteed that the soldiers were paid their full salary in cash and also increased their salaries. He also arranged for pensions and other benefits for military personnel.

Juddha Shumsher established military schools in Patan and Bhaktapur to train the army. He also built 5 barrack houses and opened a factory for making cartridges and self-propelled smokeless gunpowder in Sundarijal.

Juddha Shumsher also arranged to give various facilities to those who showed bravery on the battlefield, such as the Nepal Pratapvarkadha ribbon and a certain amount of money for life after leaving the government job.

Transport Reforms

He built a road from Bhaktapur to Dhulikhel, constructed 39 bridges across various rivers and canals, and built 16 paved and 19 unpaved roads across the country.

Juddha Shumsher also installed telephone lines in Biratnagar, Jhapa, Saptari, and Dhankuta. In 1940, he built a railway from Janakpur to Jayanagar and operated a trolley bus service from Matatirtha to Customs in Kathmandu. He also improved the postal system and started printing Nepali tickets in Nepal.


Juddha Shumsher, the youngest brother of Bir Shumsher, was the Field Marshal and Maharaja of Lamjung and Kaski. He is among the well-known Prime Ministers in Nepal.



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Pokhrel, A. (2023). Juddha Shumsher – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History. https://itihasaa.com/ranas/juddha-shumsher/


Did Juddha Shumsher contribute to Nepal?

Juddha Shumsher introduced many reforms, including land reforms, public works, and the reconstruction of Nepal after the devastating Earthquake.

Who was Juddha Shumsher?

Juddha Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana was the Prime Minister of Nepal from 1932 to 1945 and was known for his contributions to Nepal, including rebuilding the Dharahara that was destroyed by the 1934 Nepal-Bihar earthquake.

How did Juddha Shumsher grow up?

Juddha Shumsher’s life was full of difficulties from an early age, having been born weak and self-possessed. When he was nine years old, his father Dhir Shumsher passed away, and he was subsequently looked after by his brothers.

How did Juddha Shumsher help after the Great Earthquake of 1934?

After the earthquake, Juddha Shumsher established an earthquake relief fund, deposited 4 lakhs in the rescue fund in his and his queen’s name, and other employees and capitalists also contributed to the fund. Additionally, the government disbursed 29,82,316/- in interest-free loans for the construction and maintenance of the houses affected by the earthquake.

What was the impact of the Great Earthquake of 1934 on Nepal?

The earthquake killed 8,519 people and injured 15,000, with over 207,740 houses destroyed, leaving countless families homeless and destitute. According to the then Gorkhapatra, the death toll was much higher, with 16,875 people losing their lives, and more than 33 lakh houses destroyed.