Mohan Shumsher

Introduction to Mohan Shumsher

Mohan Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana, the eldest son of Chandra Shumsher, was the last Prime Minister of Nepal and the First Prime Minister of Nepal after the end of the Rana Regime.

He was born in 1885 A.D. (1942 B.S.) and was ambitious, autocratic, and Anti-Liberal like his father.

Reign of Mohan Shumsher

Mohan Shumsher was married to multiple women and had two sons and six daughters. He worked in the post of General for a long time and gained a lot of influence in politics during the reign of his father, Chandra Shamsher. In 1959, he became the Commanding General, and later in 1986 BS, he was appointed Prime Minister.

Mohan Shumsher was no less ambitious and autocratic than his father. He had a child’s habit of praising Shri 5 Tribhuvan and even instituted the custom of having kings and princes rush to the office of Shri 3 Maharaj on certain days.

However, Mohan Shumsher’s harsh reality was that if the people were aware, the Rana regime’s existence would come to an end.

Mohan Shumsher conducted numerous far-reaching changes during his brief tenure as Prime Minister. He was also known as Dharmaraj due to his strong religious beliefs. He was not greedy, had decent manners, and desired to wear a variety of outfits and jewelry. He was also quite talented and talented in intellectual games.

Mohan Shumsher’s downfall started when he committed several errors that contributed to the end of Rana’s reign.

For example, he insulted King Tribhuvan and other members of the royal family, seized the possessions of class Ranas, maintained reactionary control, failed to execute the 2004 legislation, persecuted the aware citizenry, and refused to repatriate King Tribhuvan who had sought safety in the embassy.

He even enthroned Gyanendra, which ultimately led to a revolution in the year 2007.

Mohan Shumsher was chosen as Prime Minister in the newly established administration after the revolution. However, Congress leaders and Rana side members could not agree, and the joint government was disbanded.

Reforms of Mohan Shumsher

Formation of the National Planning Committee: The Council of Industries formed the National Planning Committee to develop a five-year plan. Vijay Shumsher was the head of the planning committee. Despite the fact that the plan was developed in 2005, it was unable to be executed because of the revolution.

Establishment of Rashtra Sabha and Bhardar Sabha: Mohan Shumsher established Rashtra Sabha and Bhardar Sabha to rule according to statutory law. He chose 26 members of the Bhardari Sabha from among the Ranas and important nobles.

In the National Assembly, the governors of the separate districts chose 33 members after consulting with certain locals, while Mohan Shumsher personally nominated 37 from among persons who achieved recognition in various disciplines.

Inauguration of the National Parliament: The Prime Minister inaugurated the National Parliament on September 22, 1950. He also named Bhavnath Sharma as Agriculture Minister and Gaya Prasad Shah as Minister to his cabinet.

Announcement of reforms: On June 14, 1950, Mohan Shumsher delivered a momentous address at Singh Darbar. He declared that the ordinary man would get 10 manas of one rupee and the troops would receive 12 manas of rice to alleviate the excessive cost.

Infrastructure development: A 60-mile-long roadway between Kathmandu and Hetaunda was constructed in 2006, however it was also devastated by fire. A cement plant was also planned, but India interfered with the idea to produce energy from Kaligandaki.

In addition, airstrips were created in Kathmandu, Pokhara, Bhairahawa, Simra, and Biratnagar, and a movie theater was established near the massive market.

Educational and medical reforms: Mohan Shumsher established around 87 elementary schools across Nepal and hired instructors. He also promoted tree planting and arranged for 1000 awards to be awarded to the finest plant producers.

Medical schools were given more resources, and pre-primary education was developed to teach youngsters what they should study. Salaries for military and public personnel, teachers, and college and school staff were also raised.

Mohan Shumsher also organized for the formation of 577 panchayats across the nation, 382 in the hills and 195 in the plains. He established a commission to create a Nepali lexicon and harshly punished those who export stolen skins.

In addition, he prohibited the export of Nepali stamps and created an eye camp in Tripureshwar, where medication for 1365 eye procedures and 9000 eyes was supplied.

Conclusion

Mohan Shumsher was the Last Prime Minister of Nepa. He dealt with the Anti-Rana Regime Revolutions harshly but failed to maintain the Regime.

He was an ambitious and authoritarian individual who led to the demise of Rana’s power in Nepal.

Miscellaneous

References

  • Subedi, Raja Ram, 2061, “Nepalko Tathya Itihas,” Sajha Prakashan
  • Acharya, Baburam. “Nepalko Sanchipta Britanta”, Pramodshumsher-Nirbikram Pyasi 2022 B.S.
  • Regmi, D.R. “Modern Nepal, Volume I and II. F.K.L.M., 1975
  • Pradhan, Kumar. “The Gorkha Conquest” Oxford University Press, Kalkutta 1991
  • Stiller, L.F. “The Rise of House of Gorkha” Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1975
  • Gyawali, Surya Bikram. “Nepalka Shahbanshi Rajaharu”. Government of Nepal, 2031 B.S.
  • Kumar, Satish. “The Rana Polity in Nepal”. Asian Publishing House, 1967
  • Pande, Bhimbahadur. “Tyas Bakhatko Nepal” Part 1, 2, 3. CNAS, 2032 B.S.
  • Yadav, Pitambar Lal. “Nepalko Rajnaitik Itihas”, 2040 B.S.

Cite

Pokhrel, A. (2023). Mohan Shumsher – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History. https://itihasaa.com/ranas/mohan-shumsher/

FAQ’s

What were the reforms of Mohan Shumsher?

Mohan Shumsher implemented some reforms, including the formation of the National Planning Committee, the establishment of the Rashtra Sabha and Bhardar Sabha, and the inauguration of the National Parliament.

Which Rana was called Dharmaraj?

Mohan Shumsher was called Dharmaraj because he had more faith in religion.

Who was Mohan Shumsher?

Mohan Shumsher was the last Rana Prime Minister of Nepal who was born in 1885 and was the eldest son of Chandra Shumsher.

What led to the downfall of Mohan Shumsher’s regime?

Mohan Shumsher insulted King Tribhuvan and other members of the royal family, confiscated the properties of class Ranas, stuck to reactionary rule, oppressed the conscious citizens, and did not implement the 2004 law, leading to the end of his regime.

What other Reforms did Mohan Shumsher make?

Mohan Shumsher arranged for the establishment of 577 panchayats in the country, formed a committee to make a Nepali dictionary, and organized an eye camp in Tripureshwar.