Sadar Daftarkhana

Introduction of Sadar Daftarkhana

Sadar Daftarkhana was established in Nepal during the Rana regime to manage land as it was customary to give land as well as cash to employees and soldiers. The function of Sadar Daftarkhana was to maintain records of land and ownership certificates and to provide land as wages to soldiers.

This was the Primary Land Division and Land Introspection Office of Nepal. The major source of Revenue during the Rana Regime and Land and its Productivity. Therefore, it was felt by the Ranas classify the lands based on their ownership and productivity.

The Establishment of this Office was done in order to guarantee that Civil servants and other Government Employees obtained Land and Money as per their designation. Sadar Daftarkhana also kept records of the transaction of land between the state and government employees.

It was under the Jurisdiction of the Prime Minister and Commander In Chief. The Commanding General looked after Kamphu Daftarkhana which provided Lands to military Officers of Nepal.

Functions of Sadar Daftarkhana

Land ownership certificate issuance

It issued certificates of Land Ownership during the Rana Regime.

Issuing land ownership certificates was one of the critical functions of Sadar Daftarkhana. It was customary for the Rana administration to provide ownership certificates to those who were recipients of land grants along with financial compensation for the Employee.

The Sadar Daftarkhana was in charge of issuing ownership certificates and keeping track of land ownership information. The Certificates could be used for the transfer of ownership from one person to another, as well as for property transactions and legal disputes.

Records on landowners, land location, size, and borders were kept by the Sadar Daftarkhana. The ownership certificates also made it easier for someone to transfer land ownership from one person to another.

Land Classification

Sadar Daftarkhana was responsible for the classification of land into four categories: Jagir, Birta, Guthi, and Raikar. The classification was based on the nature of the Ownership of these Lands.

Jagir Lands were provided as Salary to the Civil Servants of Nepal. They had limited authority over those Lands and were based on how much they pleased the Ranas. The Ranas and the Kings provided Birta Lands to their loved ones and close ones. These Lands were free of Taxation, and the Owner could enjoy the produce.

Guthi Lands were lands endowed for religious Purposes since Ancient Times and weren’t taxed at all. Raikar Lands were Lands given by the Rulers of Nepal to individuals with a certain percentage of Taxation.

The land classification system helped determine the appropriate use of land and its value.

Sadar Daftarkhana, through the Clasification of Land, determined the taxes to be paid for each type of land. Land Categorization also decreased Ownership Conflicts.

Land distribution as wages

Sadar Daftarkhana provided land as wages to soldiers and Civil Servants. The soldiers were given land instead of cash, and the land provided was classified based on its nature and use. The soldiers could use the land for agricultural purposes or rent it out for a regular income. The land provided as wages ensured that the soldiers had a source of income even after their retirement.

Nepal didn’t have a thriving economy and couldn’t always afford to give Cash or Money Payments to Civil Servants. But the land in Nepal was abundant and easier to give.

The troops had two options for using the land: they either live on it themselves or rent it out for a steady income.


Sadar Daftarkhana was the Land Administrative Office of Nepal during the Rana Regime. Its Major Duties were:

  1. Maintaining records and issuing ownership certificates
  2. Land classification
  3. Providing land as wages


Pokhrel, A. (2023). Sadar Daftarkhana – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History.