Republic of Nepal

Introduction to the Republic of Nepal

Nepal was declared a Federal Democratic Republic Country on 28th May 2008 A.D. After the historic Declaration, the 240 Years long Shah Dynasty (Which came into Power by defeating the Malla’s) was abolished and a Multi-Party System of Governance was established in Nepal. The Constitution of Nepal was promulgated in 2015 A.D. and Nepal has transitioned to the Federal Government with Multi-Party Parliamentary System of Governance.

Prime Ministers of the Republic of Nepal

Girija Prasad Koirala

Girija Prasad Koirala served as the Prime Minister of Nepal once after Nepal was declared a democratic Republic. His terms as Prime Minister after Nepal became a Republic were as follows: From 28th May 2008 A.D. to 18th August 2008 A.D.

Pushpa Kamal Dahal (Prachanda)

Pushpa Kamal Dahal, commonly known as Prachanda, held the position of Prime Minister three times in Republic of Nepal. His terms as Prime Minister were as follows: From 18th August 2008 A.D. to 25th May 2009 A.D., From 4th August 2016 A.D. to 7th June 2017 A.D., and From 26th December 2022 A.D.

Madhav Kumar Nepal

Madhav Kumar Nepal served as the Prime Minister of Nepal from 12th May 2009 A.D. to 6th February 2011 A.D.

Jhala Nath Khanal

Jhala Nath Khanal was the Prime Minister of Nepal from 6th February to 29th August 2011 A.D.

Baburam Bhattarai

Baburam Bhattarai was the Prime Minister of Nepal from 29th August 2011 A.D. to 14th March 2013 A.D.

Khil Raj Regmi

Khil Raj Regmi, the Chief Justice of Nepal, served as the Chair of the Cabinet of Ministers from 14th March 2013 A.D. to 11th February 2014 A.D.

Sushil Koirala

Sushil Koirala held the position of Prime Minister of the Republic of Nepal from 11th February 2014 to 12th October 2015 A.D.

K.P. Oli

K.P. Oli became the Prime Minister of the Republic of Nepal for three terms: From 12th October 2015 to 4th August 2016 A.D., From 15th February 2018 A.D. to 12th May 2021 A.D. (Longest in Republic Nepal), and From 13th May 2021 to 13th July 2021 A.D. (Shortest in Republic Nepal).

Sher Bahadur Deuba

Sher Bahadur Deuba has served as the Prime Minister of Nepal five times, including before the Republic of Nepal. His terms as Prime Minister after the establishment of the Republic were as follows: From 7th June 2017 A.D. to 15th February 2018 A.D. and From 13th July 2021 A.D. to 26th December 2022 A.D.

President of the Republic of Nepal

Ram Baran Yadav

Ram Baran Yadav was the First President of the Republic of Nepal, holding office from 23rd July 2008 A.D. to 29th October 2015 A.D.

Bidya Devi Bhandari

Bidya Devi Bhandari served as the Second President of Nepal from 29th October 2015 A.D. to 13th March 2023 A.D.

Ram Chandra Poudel

Ram Chandra Poudel is the current President of Nepal, assuming office on 13th March 2023 A.D.

Major Political Events of the Republic of Nepal

Declaration of Nepal as a Federal Democratic Republic

In the First Historic Constituent Assembly of 28th May 2008 A.D., the Political Parties unitedly decided to make Nepal a Federal Democratic Republican State. It decided to abolish the Monarchy in Nepal and make Nepal a Republican Country with President as the Head of State. It is considered a momentous decision in the History of Modern Nepal.

Madhesh Movement

The Madhesh Movement consisted of three important events during the early years of the Republic of Nepal. These movements were launched by leaders and parties of Terai origin, advocating for inclusiveness, equality, federalism, and proportional representation of Madhesi, Tharu, and Muslims in the Terai region. The movements were held from 2007 A.D. to 2015 A.D.

The primary demand was to establish Nepal as a Federal Republic and ensure representation in the Constitution and other state mechanisms. Upendra Yadav led the First Madhesh Movement, while the Second Movement, held in 2008 A.D., was led by the unity of Madhesi Parties, resulting in amendments to the Interim Constitution of Nepal in 2063 A.D.

Madhesh Movement III, held in response to the 2015 A.D. Constitution, aimed to address the issues of state participation and proportional inclusion for marginalized minorities. This movement successfully triggered the First Amendment to the Constitution of Nepal.

Prime Ministership of Khil Raj Regmi

Following Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai’s announcement of the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly and the call for a Second Election of the Constituent Assembly, Khil Raj Regmi assumed the role of de-facto Prime Minister from 14th March 2013 A.D. to 11th February 2014 A.D.

He was made the Chairman of the Cabinet and also served as the Chief Justice of Nepal since 2011 A.D., heading both the Executive and Judicial Branches of Nepal. This decision raised debates among political analysts regarding the Doctrine of Separation of Power. Some believed it was necessary to ensure fair elections for the Second Constituent Assembly.

Second Election of Constituent Assembly

Nepal became the first state in the world to hold a Second Constituent Assembly. This Assembly served as the legislative body and was tasked with forming and promulgating the Constitution of Nepal. However, after multiple failures to promulgate the constitution, Baburam Bhattarai dissolved the Constituent Assembly.

Khil Raj Regmi was appointed as the Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers, responsible for conducting the Election of the Constituent Assembly.

Constitution of Nepal

The Constitution of Nepal was promulgated on 20th September 2015 A.D. It was a landmark constitution that declared Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic State heading toward socialism. The constitution ensured the social, political, civil, economic, and cultural rights of the citizens.

It continued the multiparty-parliamentary practice with the President as the acting head. The constitution was promulgated with a 90% majority vote, consisting of 35 parts, 308 articles, and 9 schedules.

Dissolution of House of Representatives

After the official election in 2017, the Nepal Communist Party (a combination of CPN UML and CPN Maoist) secured nearly two-thirds of the seats out of 275. K.P. Oli was chosen as the Prime Minister by the House of Representatives. However, after three years, he dissolved the House of Representatives citing hindrance to work as the primary reason.

He then formed a minority government, which was opposed by Sher Bahadur Deuba. In the landmark case of Sher Bahadur Deuba Vs. President of Nepal, the Supreme Court declared the dissolution of the House unconstitutional.

Administration of Republic Nepal

The administration of the Republic of Nepal is regulated by the Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2063, and the Constitution of Nepal (2072). In simple terms, Nepal has been divided into one federation, seven provinces, and 753 local levels. In the federation, the President acts as the Head of State in Nepal and holds a ceremonial role.

The executive power is vested in the Council of Ministers led by the Prime Minister. Along with the Prime Minister, there are 25 ministers in Nepal who oversee various ministries. In the provinces, the Chief of State acts as the Head of the Province, while Chief Ministers lead the Council of Provincial Ministers.

At the local levels, mayors or chairpersons head the municipalities or rural municipalities, respectively, and ward chairpersons represent the wards, with ward members below them.

Nepali Society after the Republic

Nepali society is dynamic and continuously evolving since it became a Republic. International influence and Western norms have continued to penetrate Nepali society. It remains a patriarchal society with the majority of the population residing in villages. Hinduism is the most dominant religion in Nepal, and secularism has been effectively implemented.

Nepal is undergoing a process of urbanization and modernization, transitioning from a feudal society to a capitalist society. The existence of diverse ethnic groups has turned Nepal into a complex and multi-faceted society. As Nepali society varies significantly based on geographical location, any facts about Nepali society after the Republic are an attempt to generalize it.

Nepali Economy after the Republic

After Nepal became a Republic, significant changes have been observed in the Nepalese economy. It has been guided to be a remittance-based economy. Agriculture and service sectors are the most flourishing industries in Nepal. Although there are low levels of investment, Nepal has slowly transitioned into a modern economy with the interest of foreign investors.

Unemployment and underemployment remain prominent problems in the Nepali economy after the Republic. Nepal has become an export-based economy with a large trade deficit. It has also become a highly dualistic economy, with villages remaining traditional with a lack of significant changes, while towns have modernized considerably. Additionally, the per capita income of Nepal is reaching $1500 dollars.

Foreign Relations in the Republic of Nepal

After Nepal became a Republic, it has become proactive in expanding its foreign relations. The interest in international systems in Nepal is a result of its geo-political location. Nepal has been increasing ties with India, China, and the U.S. Although Nepal and India have a sensitive relationship, Nepal is highly dependent on India for economic and developmental prospects.

Nepal has extended diplomatic connections with hundreds of countries, with more than 30 embassies in Nepal as well. In the modern period, trade, culture, and security are the primary concerns of Nepal’s foreign policy. Nepal has adopted an appeasement foreign policy and currently maintains a neutral foreign policy.

Conclusion

The Initial Years of Nepal as a Republic State was full of Political Instability with Multiple Prime Ministers. After the Constitution of 2015 A.D. and the General Elections of 2017 A.D. Nepal gained stability for a few years. Nepal is transitioning from the Older practices to the New Constitution while the Rule of Law and Constitutionalism seems to be increasing in Nepal. Separation of Power is also being practiced in Nepal.