Introduction to King Harisimhadeva

King Harisimhadeva was the last King of the Tirhut Kingdom who ruled it from 1305 A.D. until 1326 A.D. when he was forced to flee his Kingdom.

During his reign, the Kathmandu Valley was defeated, looted, and set on fire again and again by his commanders.

He married Devaladevi of House Tripura (Leading House of Kathmandu Valley). King Harisimhadeva introduced Kathmandu to Taleju Bhawani, who later became the Family God of Malla Kings.

Although his family including his wife Devaladevi played an important role in shaping the future of the Malla Kingdom in Nepal, they were easily conquered and defeated by Muslim Emperor Gayasuddin Tughlaq ending their 225 years of the glorious reign set by King Nanyadeva.

Life and Reign of King Harisimhadeva

King Harisimhadeva was the younger son of King Shaktisimhadeva the Brother of Bhupalsimhadeva. He wasn’t destined to be King. However, His Father Shaktisimhadeva and his Brother Bhupalsimhadeva died consequently within 1305 A.D. Hence, He was made the King of the Tirhut Kingdom.

After he became the King Of Tirhut Kingdom, he set his eyes on defeating Kathmandu Valley. He attacked Kathmandu Valley twice in 1310 and 1313 A.D. under the leadership of one of his ministers Chandeshwor.

They set out to attack Kathmandu Valley and entered it through Patan. Major Fort, situated in Sundhara was easily occupied and defeated. After occupying Sundhara, the vaults were all emptied and the nearby Houses were burnt. Every House had to pay money to the invaders of the Tirhut Kingdom.

In the Second Attack of Tirhut Kingdom, they were said to be defeated by Rudra Malla although the details aren’t certainly clear. The Armies of Tirhut Kingdom donated the money through “Tuladan” to Pashupatinath Temple. They also didn’t start a fire or any other catastrophe in the Kathmandu Valley.

Later, he married Devaladevi, the daughter of the Most Powerful Family in Kathmandu Valley. It resulted in the end of the invasion of the Tirhut Kingdom upon Nepal. Moreover, after this Marriage, Harisimhadeva didn’t invade Nepal.

End of King Harisimhadeva

King Harisimhadeva struggled to keep a balanced relationship with the Muslim Sultanates of Delhi. Consequently, a vicious War started between The Muslims and the Tirhut Kingdom. The Large forces of Muslim King Gayasuddin Tughlaq easily defeated him in nearly 1324 A.D.

After facing defeat at the Hands of The Muslim Emperor, he escaped with his family to the mountains of Nepal with all his riches. He arrived at Tin Patan of Dolakha District where he eventually died.

His Wife and other important members were also looted and imprisoned but later released by the Locals. Devaladevi, The Wife of King Harisimhadeva went to Kathmandu Valley to look after her Granddaughter Rajalladevi.

Conclusion

He brought Taleju Bhawani to Kathmandu. The Goddess became the official tutelary deity of Malla Kings due to Jayastithi Malla. Even Jayastithi Malla arrived in Nepal because of the Wife of King Harisimhadeva.

Miscellaneous

References

  • Regmi, Dilli Raman. “Medieval Nepal” Four Volumes. Firma K, 1965-66
  • Shaha, R. (2001). Ancient and Medieval Nepal. India: Manohar.
  • Vajracharya, Dhanavajra, and Kamal P. Malla. “The Gopalraja Vamsavali” Nepal Research Centre Publications, 1985
  • Upadhyaya, Shankar Kumar. “Simraungaud Ko Itihas“. Siddhartha Books and Stationaries, 2056 B.S.
  • Thakur, Upendra. “Mithila Ka Itihas”. Maithili Academy, 1956
  • Sinha, C.P.N. Mithila Under Karnat’s. Janaki Prakashan, 1979

Cite

Pokhrel, A. (2023). King Harisimhadeva – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History. https://itihasaa.com/tirhut-kings/harisimhadeva/

FAQ’s

Who was King Harisimhadeva?

King Harisimhadeva was the last King of the Tirhut Kingdom who ruled it from 1305 A.D. until 1326 A.D. when he was forced to flee his Kingdom.

What were some of King Harisimhadeva’s accomplishments?

King Harisimhadeva contributed to the intellectual, artistic, and architectural development of the Mithila Region. He introduced Kathmandu to Taleju Bhawani, which later became the Family God of Malla Kings.

Which King defeated the Kathmandu Valley?

King Harisimhadeva attacked Kathmandu Valley twice in 1310 and 1313 A.D. and managed to defeat and loot it under the leadership of one of his ministers Chandeshwor. He later married Devaladevi of House Tripura, which resulted in the establishment of peace and prosperity between the two kingdoms.

What led to the downfall of the Tirhut Kingdom?

King Harisimhadeva struggled to keep a balanced relationship with the Muslim Sultanates of Delhi, and a vicious war started between the Muslims and the Tirhut Kingdom. The large forces of Muslim King Gayasuddin Tughlaq easily defeated him in nearly 1324 A.D.

What is King Harisimhadeva’s legacy?

King Harisimhadeva’s legacy lives on as a victorious and religious king with philanthropic motives. During his reign, poetry, art, drama, music, etc. flourished in the Mithila Region, and he brought into fame Taleju Bhawani, which became the official God of Malla Kings due to Jayastithi Malla.