Tirhut Kings

Introduction to Shaktisimhadeva

Shaktisimhadeva, also known as Shukrasimhadeva, was a mighty king who ruled the Tirhut Kingdom from 1272 A.D. to 1304 A.D.

He was one of the fiercest kings of the Mithila Region as he defeated a large portion of the Mithila Region as well as the Kathmandu Valley.

He was also tyrannical, despotic, and self-centered according to many Sources. His reign was filled with Victories, Instability, Muslim Terror, and overall conflict.

Life and Reign of King Shaktisimhadeva

King Shaktisimhadeva was the son of Ramasimhadeva. He started ruling Tirhut Kingdom after the death of his Father in 1272 A.D. He was a selfish and ambitious King according to many sources.

King Shaktisimhadeva was inspired by his Father Ramasimhadeva and his ancestor King Nanyadeva to attack Kathmandu Valley. Before his Attack on Kathmandu, he had conquered several villages and lands and expanded the Tirhut Kingdom.

King Shaktisimhadeva ruled over Tirhut Kingdom for 39 Years according to Bhasa Bansawali whereas other Historians claim it to be 41 Years. After his death, Bhupalsimhadeva, his eldest son became the King of this Kingdom.

Bhupalsimhadeva died early after reigning over the Kingdom for a year. The Younger Brother of Bhupalsimhadeva, Harisimhadeva became the King of the Tirhut Kingdom. He was also the Last King of the Tirhut Kingdom.

Military Conquests

Shaktisimhadeva was known for his military prowess. He was known for his ability to be victorious wherever he attacked. He had famously claimed the Title of “Vijayashri”. He had also occupied multiple villages and forts to his name. Some of the Villages conquered by him are:

  1. Khandikhuri
  2. Khapingthali
  3. MithiliChunigal
  4. Vaghanim
  5. Bakhuribahi
  6. Tyankhadol
  7. Balukha
  8. Jaldhani
  9. Brahmapur

Conquest of Nepal

King Shaktisimhadeva rigorously collected and strengthened his army for 2-3 Months for his attack on Kathmandu in 1298 A.D. Before 1298 A.D. he had geographically encircled the Kathmandu Valley. The King of Kathmandu Valley, presumably Ananta Malla was helpless.

The Kings of Kathmandu Valley had to pay regular Taxes to King Shaktisimhadeva. This Taxation established him as a powerful and key player in Politics in the Early Malla Period of Nepal.

Conflict of Power

The Despotic Character of King Shaktisimhadeva led to internal as well as External Conflict within the Tirhut Kingdom. There was a conflict of Power and interest among the Kings of Kathmandu Valley which led to the use of the Tirhut Army in Kathmandu Valley.

The Tirhut Army had to fight the armies of the Khas Malla Kings as well. This led to inhuman and dangerous events in Kathmandu Valley.

Tyranny of Shaktisimhadeva

King Shaktisimha was strict and despotic, unlike his father Ramasimhadeva. He never cared about the welfare of the people, and even the state officials and ministers were angry with his nature.

As a result, they formed a council of 7 prominent members to control him. However, during his time, a person named Chandeshwar rose to a Powerful Position both politically and Intellectually.

Relation with Muslims

Shaktisimhadeva filed to keep a balanced and harmonious Relationship of Tirhut Kingdom with Muslim Kings.

The main cause of the bad relationship between the Tirhut Kingdom and Muslim Kings is the personality of King Shaktisimhadeva and the increasing ambition of Muslim King Alauddin Khalji.


Although he was tyrannic and despotic in nature, he was the First King of Tirhut Kingdom to defeat and receive Taxes from Nepal. He also defeated the surrounding villages of Tirhut Kingdom and annexed them. He didn’t contribute to the administrative and socio-cultural development of Tirhut Kingdom.


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  • Shaha, R. (2001). Ancient and Medieval Nepal. India: Manohar.
  • Vajracharya, Dhanavajra, and Kamal P. Malla. “The Gopalraja Vamsavali” Nepal Research Centre Publications, 1985
  • Upadhyaya, Shankar Kumar. “Simraungaud Ko Itihas“. Siddhartha Books and Stationaries, 2056 B.S.
  • Thakur, Upendra. “Mithila Ka Itihas”. Maithili Academy, 1956
  • Sinha, C.P.N. Mithila Under Karnat’s. Janaki Prakashan, 1979


Pokhrel, A. (2023). King Shaktisimhadeva – Itihasaa. Encyclopedia of Nepali History. https://itihasaa.com/tirhut-kings/shaktisimhadeva/