Prithvi Narayan Shah

Introduction to Prithvi Narayan Shah

Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of modern Nepal, was born on January 7, 1723, to King Narbhupal Shah and Queen Kaushalavati.

He was the eldest son among the four queens of King Narbhupal Shah. Prithvi Narayan Shah was a born leader and showed all the qualities of a leader from his childhood.

Prithvi Narayan Shah was a born leader who exhibited all the qualities of a leader from his childhood. His early education, training, and leadership qualities made him a visionary and mighty leader.

His marriage to Indra Kumari helped to establish a strong political alliance, and the blessing of Gorakhnath instilled a sense of determination and courage in him. It was these qualities that helped him to unite Nepal and establish it as a sovereign nation.

He built a strong and well-equipped army that was trained in the art of warfare and equipped with the latest weapons of that time.

He conquered various small kingdoms, including Nuwakot, Gorkha, Lamjung, and Kaski, before annexing the Kathmandu Valley into his kingdom. The Modern Nepal’s foundation was laid down by his Conquests.

Family of Prithvi Narayan Shah


Prithvi Narayan Shah had four brothers, Mahoddimkirti Shah, Dalmardan Shah, Dalajit Shah, and Surpratap Shah.


1. Pratap Singh Shah

2. Bahadur Shah

3. Bilas Kumari

4. Narayan Shah

5. Vishnu Shah


1. Indra Kumari Devi

2. Narendra Rajya Laxmi

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Early Years of P.N. Shah

Prithvi Narayan Shah was educated and trained by his stepmother, Queen Chandraprabhavati, who was the princess of Khanchi. She provided him with warm affection and instilled in him the values of hard work and dedication.

Prithvi Narayan Shah’s education was further enhanced by the teachings of renowned pandits such as Aryal, Joshi, and Pant. They taught him religious scriptures such as the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Sukraneeti, and Chanakya Neeti, which helped him become a visionary and mighty leader.

Leadership Qualities

From a young age, Prithvi Narayan Shah exhibited all the qualities of a leader. He was diligent, and hardworking, and clearly envisioned what he wanted to achieve. The seed of luxury could not germinate in him. He was not interested in materialistic pleasures and had a strong desire to lead his people toward prosperity and glory.

There is a legend that Prithvi Narayan Shah was blessed by Gorakhnath at the age of 6 years. According to this legend, Gorakhnath assured Prithvi Narayan Shah that he would have rights over the land he had trodden under his feet. This incident is said to have instilled a sense of determination and courage in Prithvi Narayan Shah.

Marriage and Political Alliance

Narbhupal Shah wanted to marry P.N. Shah with a strong family so that it would assist him if needed. The best prospect of marriage that he saw fit was with the Kingdom of Makwanpur. P.N. Shah had turned 14 in 1938 C.E. and it was decided that he would marry Indrakumari, the daughter of Hemkarna Sen, the Princess of Makwanpur in the Pre-Unification Nepal.

According to Historical Accounts, the Queen of Makwanpur believed that the Queen of Gorkha was too vain and full of pride. Also, she believed that Gorkha was too small of a Kingdom. Hence, she denied sending her daughter to Gorkha.

The Kiths and Kins of P.N. Shah tried their best to secure the daughter as well as Daijo or Marital Gifts from Makwanpur. This irritated the King of Makwanpur. He sarcastically commented that Gorkha is such a small Kingdom that they are worried about Daijo. This was quite true as well.

Hence, The Bridegroom P.N. Shah as well as other kins returned without the bride. P.N. Shah was married to the daughter of Kashi Rajput Narendra Laxmi.

Soon after a year, Hemkarna Sen requested P.N. Shah to Makwanpur. After his arrival, P.N. ruthlessly ordered to kill an army officer who didn’t pay him enough respect. The Prince and Heir, Digbandhan Sen were enraged. However, Hemkarna Sen mediated them and P.N. Shah’s life was spared. Else P.N. Shah would be dead and Pre-Unification Nepal wouldn’t even exist.

After Makwanpur, they took the route of the Rapti River and climbed the hills of Chandragiri. P.N. Shah wanted to scour the land he so much desired. He observed the Kathmandu Valley and thus expressed his desire to conquer it someday.

Visit to Bhaktapur

In 1741 AD, Narbhupal Shah appointed his successor Prithvi Narayan Shah and sent him to Bhaktapur where he was given a grand welcome by King Ranjita Malla. The king established a friendly relationship between his sons and Prithvi Narayan Shah, which allowed him to study the social, economic, political, geographical, and military aspects of the Kathmandu Valley.

After this, the king of Kantipur, Jayaprakash Malla, announced an alliance with Prithvi Narayan Shah, which he gladly accepted. Prithvi Narayan Shah established a friendly relationship with Kantipur.

Bhaktapur had been weakened by the Unity of Kantipur and Lalitpur. The strings of Lalitpur were under the hand of Kantipur. Hence, Gorkha and Bhaktapur developed Diplomatic relations with one another. Later, it turned out to be an important tool of diplomacy in Pre-unification Nepal.

After staying for a year and developing close bonds with King Ranajita Malla of Bhaktapur, P.N. Shah returned to Gorkha. Narbhupal Shah died in 1742 C.E. and P.N. Shah was crowned the King of Gorkha at the age of 20 years in Pre-unification Nepal.

This alliance ultimately made Ranajita Malla weaker. Ranajita Malla’s sons had also died. So, the loss of his sons and P.N. Shah being a ritual son increased his attachment to the King of Gorkha. This was exploited to the fullest by P.N. Shah in his conquest of Kathmandu Valley.

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The First Treaty of P.N. Shah

After King P.N. Shah scouted the Kathmandu Valley, he expressed his desires to his maternal Uncle Udyot Sen, the Prince of Palpa. Indirectly, he was seeking advice from his Maternal Uncle. Udyot Sen gave him something better, an analogy.

If you desire to conquer Kathmandu Valley, it is your Frog, then Gorkha is the Snake. But there is one more predator remaining. It is the Eagle. The Eagle is Lamjung. If the Snake attacks and eats the frog, the Eagle shall attack the Snake and eat it. Hence, make a plan to silence the Eagle first.

In 1739 C.E. P.N. Shah with Kalu Pandey traveled to Lamjung as the representative of Gorkha in the Pre-unification of Nepal. They started negotiations with Lamjung which was ruled by Ripumardan Shah. They devised a treaty whose major points are:

  • Gorkha and Lamjung should maintain a continuous brotherhood and friendship.
  • Gorkha shall assist Lamjung against its war on Kaski.
  • Lamjung shall not attack Gorkha if Gorkha starts attacking Eastern frontiers.
  • Lamjung will get Rs. 40 thousand if Gorka violates the Treaty in any way.

Preparation of Prithvi Narayan Shah

First Attack of P.N. Shah

In 1800 C.E., P.N. Shah sent an army under General Biraj Thapa Magar to attack Nuwakot. They halted on the shore of the Trishuli River and made necessary preparations. Despite knowing Jayanta Rana was protecting Nuwakot and that he knew the Gorkhali Army in detail, few changes were made by P.N. Shah.

This impulsive attack was easily defeated by Kantipur. P.N. Shah had attacked Nuwakot with a weak battalion, minimum weapons, and without any significant strategy. Hence, he lost the battles with ease in Pre-unification Nepal.

Travel of P.N. Shah to Kashi

P.N. Shah decided to travel to Kashi, India for increasing Military weapons and understanding the Geo-Politics of the nearby areas. He implemented an aggressive taxation policy and took Rs. 1 from each house to finance the expedition and weapons. He with 61 other officers and workers, began his expedition to Kashi through the road of Chitlang in the Pre-unification of Nepal.

After reaching Kashi, Abhiman Singh, P.N. Shah’s wife’s father assisted him with Weaponry and other needs. This was also during the Pre-Unification of Nepal. He signed a treaty with King Hari Shah of Jajarkot to never hinder each other and maintain a prosperous relationship.

He also met with the Kings of Pyuthan, Salyan, Doti, etc. During his return, he killed the Customs Officers at the border and traveled through Gorakhpur, Butwal, Palpa, Lamjung, Tanahu, and into Gorkha.

Also, he changed his Gotra or Ancestry from Bhardwaj to Kashyap to prevent any sins of Ancestry Killing or Gotra Hatya.

After his return, he made it compulsory for the youth of 16 to 30 to participate in military activities in Gorkha. After these events, he made Kalu Pande Kaji of Gorkha and set out to conquer and unify Nepal.

Narbhupal Shah was mentally unstable ever since his failed war with Nuwakot in 1737. Prithvi Narayan Shah began to exercise the burden of government along with his stepmother Chandraprabhavati in 1742. Narbhupal Shah died, and Prithvi Narayan Shah ascended the throne of Gorkha at the age of 20.

He paid special attention to collecting the financial resources necessary to bring his unification resolution into action. He collected donations from the public and emphasized the manufacture of arms and military reorganization. He ordered men of all castes between the ages of 16 and 30 to be recruited into compulsory military service.

Conquest of Nuwakot

The Battle of Nuwakot III took place in 1744 C.E., where Prithvi Narayan Shah led his army to attack Nuwakot, which acted as a trade center and bridge between Tibet and Kantipur, the Triad of Kathmandu Valley. The soldiers of Gorkha disguised themselves as farmers to deceive the people of Nuwakot and sent spies to understand the situation.

The attack was planned in secrecy, and Jayanta Rana, the chief protector of Nuwakot, was requested to return to Gorkha, which he refused, as he had eaten the salt of Jayaprakash Malla and was loyal to him. On the night of September 25th, the Army of Gorkha crossed the Trishuli River and attacked Nuwakot, dividing itself into three parts.

Dalmardan Shah, Prithvi Narayan Shah’s brother, sneaked out and joined Kalu Pande’s army. Sankhamani Rana, the commander of Nuwakot, was surrounded, and Dalmardan hit him with a blow to the head when he attacked him, contributing to the conquest of Nuwakot.

After the victory, King P.N. Shah entered the Palace of Nuwakot, and the news of the conquest reached Kathmandu. Jayaprakash Malla provided Jayanta Rana with soldiers, but instead of attacking Nuwakot, he collected his army in Belkot. P.N. Shah and Kalu Pande hatched a plan to capture him, and Kalu Pande attacked and defeated Malla’s army.

Jayanta Rana was captured, and P.N. Shah ordered his soldiers to kill him by tearing off the skin from his body, ending the chance of Mutiny within the Gorkhali Army. The conquest of Nuwakot was beneficial economically, agriculturally, and politically, and P.N. Shah made his headquarters in Nuwakot after the conquest.

After the conquest, Shah planned on attacking Sakhu, Sindupalchowk, Kavrepalanchowk, and Dolakha, but Shivaram Singh Basnet, the leader of the attack, was defeated by Kashiram Thapa. Jayaprakash Malla negotiated with Kashiram Thapa, making him the Commander-in-Chied of the Nuwakot army.

The Battle of Nuwakot IV took place in 1752 C.E., where Kashiram Thapa led the Nuwakot army to defend the valley against the Gorkhali army. The battle ended in favor of the Nuwakot army, and the Gorkhali army had to retreat.

Conquest of Makwanpur

The First Conquest of Makwanpur was conducted by P.N. Shah in 1762 C.E. The primary reason behind the conquest was to avenge the humiliation that P.N. Shah had suffered earlier.

The first action P.N. Shah took was to name the son of the dead Kalu Pande’s son Bansharaj Pande king, and he allowed Pande and Basnet to take the lead in the war. On August 21, 1762, 1100 Gorkhali soldiers marched toward Makwanpur, and after an eight-hour-long battle.

Gorkhali officially defeated Makwanpuri soldiers, with nearly 400 Makwanpuri soldiers and 50 Gorkhali soldiers dying. After the conquest of Makwanpur, Gorkhali soldiers rode to Hariharpurgadi towards the King of Makwanpur for the complete conquest of Makwanpur.

The Fort of Hariharpurgadi was situated at a great height, and the surrounding hills could be clearly seen. After a month of preparation, a vicious war began in Hariharpurgadi on October 4, 1762, where 55 Gorkhali and 500 Makwanpurgadi soldiers died, and the fort was cleared. After the conquest of Hariharpurgadi, Gorkhali soldiers attacked Timalkot and established absolute rights over Makwanpur.

Digbandhan Sen, the king of Makwanpur, ran away time and again, and after he contacted the Nawab of Bengal, requesting armies for defeating the Gorkhalis, a massive Bengali army was sent, which Gorkhalis defeated by using guerrilla warfare.

On 1763 February 13, Gorkhalis attacked the place where Digbandhan Sen was living, and he ran away again with his inner queen and sister. After he sent a letter of submission to P.N. Shah, he was imprisoned in Gorkha, and the monarchy of Makwanpur officially ended.

The defeat of Makwanpur was beneficial for Gorkhali as they gathered 700 guns, arms, and ammunition. The conquest of Makwanpur allowed Gorkhali to expand its empire and became a dominant power in the region.

Conquest of Kirtipur

Prithvi Narayan Shah, the king of Gorkha, had conquered Nuwakot and expanded the kingdom’s geographical, economic, and political power. His eyes were set on Kirtipur, a strategic location in the Kathmandu Valley. In 1757, he attacked Kirtipur with an army of 1200 soldiers under the leadership of Kalu Pande.

However, despite his courtiers’ opposition, the attack failed, and the Gorkhalis suffered heavy losses. The commander-in-chief, Kalu Pande, was killed, and Gorkha had to sign a commercial treaty with Kantipur that favored the latter. Gorkha had to return Naldum to Kantipur and allow Kantipur to pass through Nuwakot for trade purposes.

After the treaty, tensions rose between the two kingdoms, and Gorkha’s diplomat Tularam Pande acted as a spy, causing Kantipur’s Jayaprakash Malla to imprison and kill two officers.

In response, Prithvi Narayan Shah annexed Shivapurigadhi and Palanchowk, renovated the forts of Kavre and Sindupalchowk, and stationed his soldiers there. He also defeated the Kingdom of Makwanpur and captured other strategic locations.

In 1765, he attacked Kirtipur for the second time with a larger army and two well-known commanders, Damodar Pande, and Balbhadra Kunwar. The Gorkhalis cut off Kirtipur’s food and water supply, causing its residents to suffer. The siege continued for three months, and Gorkha finally captured Kirtipur, killing most of its residents.

The capture of Kirtipur gave Gorkha access to the Kathmandu Valley and paved the way for the unification of Nepal. Prithvi Narayan Shah is regarded as the founder of modern Nepal and is credited with unifying the country, introducing administrative reforms, and establishing a strong central government.

Conquest of Kathmandu

P.N. Shah had already conquered several neighboring territories, including Nuwakot, Makwanpur, Kavre, and Sindupalchowk, which gave him a significant military advantage over Kathmandu. When Jayaprakash Malla tried to unite with Bhaktapur and Patan to defeat Gorkha, P.N. Shah was able to defeat their armies twice.

However, Kathmandu had a final weapon in its arsenal, the East India Company. Jayaprakash Malla pleaded with the Company to send their troops in defense of Kathmandu and to prevent the end of medieval Nepal. But P.N. Shah’s army defeated them in Sinduli Gadi and forced them to retreat, leaving behind valuable modern weapons that were gained by Gorkhali troops.

The defeat of the East India Company marked a turning point in the war, as it deprived Kathmandu of its most powerful ally. P.N. Shah then imposed a blockade on Kathmandu, which weakened the city’s economy and caused widespread suffering among the people.

Realizing that his defeat was inevitable, Jayaprakash Malla fled to Patan in 1768. However, Patan was too weak to resist P.N. Shah’s forces, and the kingdom fell soon afterward. P.N. Shah then consolidated his power and went on to unite Nepal under his rule, bringing about the end of medieval Nepal.

After the fall of the Malla Dynasty in Kathmandu Valley, P.N. Shah granted the last kings a wish. Jayaprakash Malla, the King of Kantipur, wished to die with an umbrella in his hand and shoes on his feet, symbolizing his rebirth as a king.

Reluctantly, P.N. Shah granted his wish. Ranajita Malla wished to die in Kashi, but P.N. Shah offered Banepa as an alternative. Ranajita Malla declined and was allowed to take his possessions with him. Tej Narsingh Malla did not make a wish and was imprisoned by P.N. Shah.

Conquest of Western Nepal

P.N. Shah, after conquering the Kathmandu Valley, aimed to defeat the Western States of Nepal and expand his empire. He waged war on the powerful Kingdoms of Lamjung and Tanahu and succeeded in making them surrender and accept him as their King by 1770 C.E. The Kingdom of Kaski also accepted his kingship.

However, the small Kingdoms of Parbat, Pallo Nuwakot, and Satahu united and challenged P.N. Shah’s army. After some small Kingdoms were conquered and the rainy season had begun, the soldiers of Chaubise States united with each other and planned to wage war against Gorkha. P.N. Shah’s army surrendered, and many soldiers were punished for losing or surrendering their weapons.

Despite being a harsh and strict King, P.N. Shah failed to capture the Western States of Nepal and struggled against the Eastern and Southeastern States of Terai. He had to pay a ransom to the Governor of Patna to rule over the South-East Regions of Terai.

This caused a dispute among the Britishers and Captains of the East India Company, but the matter was settled, and Gorkha was provided ownership over the districts.

Conquest of Eastern Nepal

Despite not having success In the Conquest of the Western Regions of Nepal, P.N. Shah began the Conquest of Eastern Regions to expand its territory. The Chaudani kingdom, which was located at the border between Kirats and Gorkha, became a target.

The Gorkhalis took advantage of the internal division between the Rai and Brahmin-Kshetriya factions in Chaudani and received help from the latter to conquer the state. Gorkha then aimed to conquer Vijayapur, which was located east of the Saptakoshi River and included Kirat civilizations.

The Gorkhalis engaged in a duel with the Vijayapur kingdom to decide who would win, and the Gorkha representative was killed. However, the Gorkhalis used deceitful tactics, and hidden weapons in the sand, to defeat the Kiratis. After chaos ensued, Gorkha sent an army to ensure the Eastern Conquest of Nepal.

The army conquered Vijayapur, and the Gorkhalis aimed to conquer Sikkim. However, the Limbus in the Pallo Limbuwan Area and Sikkim fiercely resisted the Gorkhalis. Eventually, a treaty was made between the Gorkhalis and Limbus, with the former ruling the kingdom but not overthrowing the local kings. This treaty extended the eastern borders of Nepal to Tista, and P.N. Shah became the first king of modern Nepal.

Assassination Attempt Over P.N. Shah

After P.N. Shah conquered Kathmandu Valley, a group of conspirators planned to assassinate him and make Tej Narsingh Malla the king. However, a loyal courtier informed P.N. Shah, who then traveled to Bhaktapur to learn more about the plot.

While traveling, a group of men approached P.N. Shah with weapons, and one of them, Bhawani Singh, tried to kill him but was stopped by P.N. Shah’s bodyguard.

It was discovered that the Mahapatras of Lalitpur and Nagarkoti had participated in the plan, and 250 people were killed as punishment for their involvement. This occurred just before the Western Conquest of Nepal.

Contributions of Prithvi Narayan Shah

Military Achievements

Prithvi Narayan Shah was a highly skilled military strategist and his military accomplishments played a crucial role in the unification of Nepal. He was determined to protect his country from external threats and unify the various small kingdoms under one banner.

Prithvi Narayan Shah not only succeeded in unifying the small kingdoms but also expanded the territory of Nepal through military conquests.

Prithvi Narayan Shah was always prepared for war and he spent a significant amount of his time and resources in building a strong and well-equipped army. He knew that in order to protect Nepal from external threats, he needed a powerful army.

He ensured that his army was well-trained in the art of warfare and equipped with the latest weapons of that time such as Manduk, sword, khukuri, cannon, spear, etc.

Prithvi Narayan Shah’s first military campaign was against Nuwakot, a neighboring state that was strategically located near the Kathmandu valley. The conquest of Nuwakot was crucial for the unification of Nepal as it provided a secure base for future military campaigns. After Nuwakot, he went on to conquer the kingdoms of Gorkha, Lamjung, Kaski, Tanahun, and many others.

His most notable military achievement was the conquest of the Kathmandu Valley, which was the center of power at that time. The conquest of Kathmandu was not an easy feat as it was heavily fortified and defended by a powerful army.

However, Prithvi Narayan Shah’s military strategy and leadership skills proved to be superior, and he was able to defeat the army of Kathmandu and annex the valley into his kingdom.

Prithvi Narayan Shah also fought against external threats to Nepal. He was aware of the growing power of the East India Company and its interest in Nepal. He understood that the British had a policy of entering as elephants and coming out as elephants. Therefore, he made sure to strengthen Nepal’s borders and protect it from external threats.

Prithvi Narayan Shah’s military accomplishments laid the foundation for the modern state of Nepal. His military conquests led to the unification of Nepal and the expansion of its territory. His military strategy and leadership skills proved to be superior, and he was able to protect Nepal from external threats.

Unification of Nepal

The greatest achievement of Prithvi Narayan Shah was to lay the foundation of an independent nation. Before his rise, Nepal was understood as the Kathmandu Valley, and over 50 kingdoms existed under the territory of modern Nepal.

The kings of those small kingdoms used to fight each other over petty issues and did not care about nationality. However, Prithvi Narayan Shah realized that the states of the Nepali territory should be united or a powerful nation should be built to fight against the powerful invaders.

He made a firm decision to unify Nepal with mind, word, and deed. He always stayed away from luxury and considered the war front the same as politics.

Prithvi Narayan Shah was familiar with the policies of the East India Company government that had gained power in India, and he wanted the holy Himalayan kingdoms to be protected from English sight.

He predicted that only two kingdoms would be formed in the Mahabharata section, and the Ganges River would be the border between them.

Prithvi Narayan Shah extended the boundaries of Gorkhas from Chepenadi to Dhading to the Mechi River in the east, and he not only unified Nepal geographically but also administratively, economically, and culturally. He is considered the national maker of Nepal.

Prithvi Narayan Shah was a politician who believed that the interest of the people was in the interest of the king. He was always worried about the country and its people. He adopted the policy of sam (reminding), showing dam (greed), danda (punishment), and bhed (separation) according to the time and situation. He was good at helping the local people.

Kirat, Limbu, Newar, Chhetri, Brahmin, etc. castes with different cultures and traditions became flowers in the garden under one flag.

In this regard, Prithvi Narayan Shah said in his sermon, “My small sorrow is not a country of poverty, it is a flower garden of all castes, everyone is aware, this is the real Hindustan with four castes and six castes in this flower garden.”

Justice and Law

Prithvi Narayan Shah, the renowned leader and founder of modern Nepal, was not only a great unifier but also a lover of justice. He recognized the importance of establishing a good system of justice in the country and set out to achieve this goal during his reign.

Although his efforts were somewhat limited due to his focus on unification work, Prithvi Narayan Shah played a pivotal role in establishing the main court in Kathmandu. He emphasized the importance of the king’s duty to prevent injustice and believed that justice should be based on scriptural principles.

Furthermore, he understood the importance of having knowledgeable and skilled individuals in court administration, such as Thakuri in the post of Dittha and Magar in the post of thinker, and other experts in jurisprudence.

He believed that a scrutineer, expert judge, and scholar should be present in the court, and jurisprudence should guide court proceedings.

Prithvi Narayan Shah also stressed the importance of keeping court income separate from the palace and using it to benefit the people. He believed that funds should be used for Dakshina, Bhojan, Dhoti, Rumal, and other necessities and that guests such as Fakir, Atit (guest), Jogi, Sanyasi, and Brahmin should be supported.

Overall, Prithvi Narayan Shah’s contributions to justice and law were significant, and his efforts laid the foundation for a strong judicial system in Nepal.

Patriotism and Culture

Prithvi Narayan Shah, a notable figure in Nepalese history, made significant contributions to the protection and development of traditional culture. Despite conquering lands where various cultures existed, he showed equal sympathy toward their development and established harmony among them.

He adopted a policy of religious tolerance, allowing for the active participation of all four Varnas in building and protecting the flower garden of thirty-six species. Prithvi Narayan Shah played a crucial role in preserving the Nepali identity, and the development of the Khas language helped to increase unity and cooperation in Nepali society.

However, Prithvi Narayan Shah had several weaknesses, including a lack of compassion, a tendency to make quick decisions, and a habit of not delaying anything in politics.

He was also known for punishing not only the culprits but also their families, including their sons and grandsons. Despite these flaws, he was unabashedly ambitious, made sound decisions, had the courage, and was always engaged in action.

According to various sources, Prithvi Narayan Shah was a patriot, a brave warrior, an organizer, and a hard-working general who possessed all the qualities a leader should have.

He never panicked, even in complex situations, and was always willing to undertake difficult tasks to achieve his desired objectives. Although he was generous and kind to his friends and followers, he had no trust in foreigners and never showed mercy to his enemies.

Foreign Policy

P.N. Shah, the founder of Nepal, made significant contributions to the foreign policy of his country, including the development of a non-aligned foreign policy.

He believed that Nepal was located between two powerful neighboring countries, India and Tibet, and to maintain its independent existence, Nepal needed to have friendly relations with both countries.

He emphasized the importance of being strategic in diplomatic relations and advised his people to keep a close eye on the Emperor of China while also maintaining good relations with neighboring countries.

P.N. Shah sent emissaries to various regions, including Vishwamitra Upadhyay to Sikkim, Brihaspati Pandey to Poonia, Kirahpali to Patna, Dinanath Upadhyay to Calcutta, and Lalgiri to Lhasa, to expand diplomatic relations and strengthen Nepal’s position as an independent nation.

P.N. Shah’s contributions to Nepal’s foreign policy were crucial in shaping the country’s relations with its powerful neighbors and maintaining its independent existence.


P.N. Shah, the founder of Nepal, had a clear and visionary economic policy. He believed that the strength of the people would translate to the strength of the palace. Although he did not dedicate much of his time to economic development, his Dibya Upadesh reveal that he had a clear policy in this area.

P.N. Shah wanted to ban the entry of foreign traders into the country to prevent them from taking wealth out of Nepal. He emphasized the need to increase production within the country to earn foreign exchange.

He prohibited the use of foreign cloth to encourage indigenous industry and art. He also gave great importance to mining and revenue collection and set up bases and recruited qualified employees to prevent revenue leakage.

P.N. Shah insisted on using pure talk and not giving contracts related to the accounting of income and expenses to outsiders. He preached that the government should keep Amanat (base) and take government Tahsil (tax collection base) for the year to increase agricultural production by increasing the population of the land.

P.N. Shah’s economic policy aimed to strengthen Nepal’s economy by promoting indigenous industry and preventing the exploitation of Nepal’s resources by foreign traders. His policies were visionary and aimed at promoting self-sufficiency and independence for Nepal.

Scholarly Pursuit

Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of Nepal, had a great appreciation for scholars. He had many scholars under his patronage, including Lalit Ballabh, Shaktiballabh, Ramhrudaya, Begughar, and Shivanand Kulanand.

The state policy was determined and implemented based on the advice of these scholars. Additionally, Ramani, an astrologer, provided his opinion, which was also considered in decision-making.

Prithvi Narayan Shah consulted with scholars on all aspects of his life, including battles, internal policies, and foreign policies. Their opinions were highly valued and played a crucial role in the decision-making process.


Prithvi Narayan Shah’s military achievements were the foundation for the modern state of Nepal. His military strategy and leadership skills were superior, and he was able to protect Nepal from external threats.

His unification of Nepal led to the expansion of its territory and laid the foundation of an independent nation. He not only unified Nepal geographically but also administratively, economically, and culturally.

He is considered the national maker of Nepal. Additionally, Prithvi Narayan Shah was a lover of justice, emphasizing the importance of having knowledgeable individuals in court administration and keeping court income separate from the palace. His legacy as a great leader and unifier live on.



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Who is Prithvi Narayan Shah?

Prithvi Narayan Shah was the founder of modern Nepal, born on January 7, 1723, to King Narbhupal Shah and Queen Kaushalavati. He was a born leader and exhibited all the qualities of a leader from his childhood.

What is Prithvi Narayan Shah called?

Prithvi Narayan Shah is also called the Father and Founder of Modern Nepal and also the First King of Modern Nepal. He is among the National Heroes of Nepal and has been attributed asWhothe Unifier of Nepal.

What is Prithvi Narayan Shah famous for?

Prithvi Narayan Shah is famous for the Unification of Nepal which took him three decades to achieve. He is also renowned for his diplomacy, strategic alliance, bravery and Nationalism.

Who were the family members of Prithvi Narayan Shah?

Prithvi Narayan Shah had four brothers, Mahoddimkirti Shah, Dalmardan Shah, Dalajit Shah, and Surpratap Shah. He had five children – Pratap Singh Shah, Bahadur Shah, Bilas Kumari, Narayan Shah, and Vishnu Shah. He had two wives – Indra Kumari Devi and Narendra Rajya Laxmi.

How was Prithvi Narayan Shah’s early education?

Prithvi Narayan Shah was educated by his Stepmother Queen Chandraprabhavati and further enhanced by Pandits of Cha Thar Ghar such as Aryal, Joshi, and Pant through Ramayana, Mahabharata, Sukraneeti, etc.

When was Kathmandu conquered by Prithvi Narayan Shah?

Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered Kathmandu in 13th Ashwin 1825 B.S., Patan in 24th Ashwin 1825 B.S., and Bhaktapur in 1st Magh 1826 B.S.

What can we learn from Prithvi Narayan Shah?

The Life of Prithvi Narayan Shah teaches us to be ambitious while maintaining patience and dedication. His collection of Teachings, Dibya Upadesh, provides a comprehensive strategy for ruling over a country.

Who is the First Father of Nepal?

Prithvi Narayan Shah is considered the Father of Modern Nepal.

Who is the First King of Nepal?

Prithvi Narayan Shah is the First King of Modern Nepal whereas King Manadeva is the First Historically Accurate King of Nepal.